This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Structuring Primitives for a Dictionary of Entity Relationship Data Schemas
April 1993 (vol. 19 no. 4)
pp. 344-365

The data dictionary contains the description of all types of data produced, managed, exchanged, and maintained in an organization. Data descriptions (very often hundreds of schemas) should be organized in such a way to allow all the users of the information system to understand the meaning of data and their relationships. To this end, a set of structuring primitives for a dictionary of entity relationship data schemas is presented. The formal properties of such structuring primitives are investigated, and the feasibility of their usage is shown by providing a methodology for dictionary design.

[1] M. Angelaccio, T. Catarci, and G. Santucci, "QBD*: A graphical query language with recursion,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1150-1163, 1990.
[2] M. Angelaccio, T. Catarci, and G. Santucci, "QBD*: A fully visual system for ER oriented databases,"J. Visual Lang. Comput., vol. 1, pp. 255-273, 1990.
[3] American National Standard Information Resource Dictionary System, Amer. Nat. Standard Inst., New York, 1985.
[4] P. Atzeni and R. Torlone, "A metamodel approach for the management of multiple models in CASE tools," inProc. Second. Int. Conf. Databases, Expert Systems, and Applications, Berlin, Germany, Aug. 1991.
[5] C. Batiniet al., "Methodological reference framework for the design of information systems in public administrations," Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, 1990 (in Italian).
[6] C. Batini and M. L. Bargellini, "Information systems for information dissemination: A design methodology," ENEA, 1990 (in Italian).
[7] C. Batini, S. Ceri, and S. B. Navathe,Conceptual Database Design, an Entity Relationship Approach. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin-Cummings, 1991.
[8] C. Batini and G. Di Battista, "A methodology for conceptual documentation and maintenance,"Inform. Syst., vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 297-318, 1988.
[9] C. Batini, G. Di Battista, and G. Santucci, "Representation structures for data dictionaries," Dip. Informatica e Sistemistica, Universita' di Roma "La Sapienza," Tech. Rep. 09.91, May 1991.
[10] C. Batini and M. Lenzerini, "A methodology for data schema integration in the entity relationship model,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-10, pp. 650-664, Nov. 1984.
[11] C. Batini, M. Lenzerini, and S.B. Navathe, "A Comparative Analysis of Methodologies for Database Schema Integration,"ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 18, No. 4, Dec. 1986, pp. 323-364.
[12] W. Brauer, W. Reisig, and G. Rozenberg, Eds.,Petri Nets: Applications and Relationships to Other Models of Concurrence(Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 255), 1987.
[13] M. Bright, A. Hurson, and S. Pakzad, "A taxonomy and current issues in multidatabase systems,"Computer, pp. 50-59, Mar. 1992.
[14] M. Chen and R. J. Norman, "A framework for integrated CASE,"IEEE Software, pp. 18-22, Mar. 1992.
[15] K. H. Davis and A. K. Arora, "Converting a relational database model into an entity-relationship model," inProc. Sixth Int. Conf. Entity-Relationship Approach, S. March, Ed. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 1987, pp. 271-285.
[16] T. De Marco,Structured Analysis and System Specification. Yourdon, 1979.
[17] C Batini and G. Di Battista, "Design of statistical databases: A methodology for the conceptual step,"Inform. Syst., vol. 13, no. 4, 1988.
[18] G. Di Battista, A. Giammarco, G. Santucci, and R. Tamassia, "The architecture of diagram server," inProc. IEEE Workshop Visual Languages, Skokie, IL, Oct. 4-6, 1990.
[19] G. Di Battista and M. Lenzerini, "A deductive method for entity-relationship modeling,"IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., 1993, to be published.
[20] Digital's Distributed Repository, Digital Equipment Corp., 1991.
[21] R. Tamassia and P. Eades, "Algorithms for Drawing Graphs: An Annotated Bibliography,"Tech. Report CS-89-09, Computer Science Dept., Brown Univ., Providence, R.I., 1989.
[22] R. Elmasri and S. B. Navathe,Fundamentals of Database Systems. Redwood City, CA: Benjamin/Cummings, 1989.
[23] C. Gane and T. Sarson,Structured Systems Analysis: Tools and Techniques. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1979.
[24] MastER User Manual, GESI Srl, 1989.
[25] W. Gottard, P. Lockemann, and A. Neufeld, "System-guided view integration for object-oriented databases,"IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-22, 1992.
[26] J. L. Hainaut, "Entity-generating schema transformations for entity-relationship model," inProc. 10th Int. Conf. Entity Relationship Approach, San Mateo, CA, 1991.
[27] S. Huffman and R. Zoeller, "A rule-based system tool for automated ER model clustering," inProc. Seventh Int. Conf. Entity Relationship Approach, Toronto, Ont., Canada, 1989, pp. 345-360.
[28] C. Hsu, M. Bouziane, L. Rattner, and L. Yee, "Information resource management in heterogeneous, distributed environments: A metadatabase approach,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., 1991.
[29] R. Hull and R. King, "Semantics database modeling: Survey, applications, and research issues,"Comput. Surveys, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 201-260, Sept. 1987.
[30] IBM Repository Manager/MVS,General Information V. 1.2, 2nd ed., 1990.
[31] "An Introduction to Information Warehousing," IBM, Document GC26- 4876-00, Sept. 1991.
[32] Application Development Workbench, Knowledgeware, 1991.
[33] "Excelerator," presented at the CASE Symp., Digital Consulting, Index Technology Corp., 1987.
[34] R. Lazimy, "E2R model and object-oriented representation for data management, process modeling and decision support," inProc. 8th Int. Conf. Entity Relationship Approach, Toronto, Ont., Canada, 1989.
[35] M. V. Mannino and W. Effelsberg, "A methodology for global schema design," Dep. Comput. Inform. Sci., Univ. Florida, Tech. Rep. TR84.1, Sept. 1984.
[36] S. Navathe and A. Wong, "Abstracting relational and hierarchical data with a semantic data model," inProc. Seventh Int. Conf. Entity-Relationship Approach, 1987.
[37] S.B. Navathe and S.G. Gadgil, "A Methodology for View Integration in Logical Data Base Design,"Proc. Eighth Very Large Database Conf., Morgan Kaufmann, Palo Alto, 1982.
[38] S. Navathe and L. Kershberg, "Extending data dictionaries for the logical database design process," inProc. Database Directions III Workshop, Fort Lauderdale, FL, 1981.
[39] B. Pace, "Learn-as-you-go CASE(POSE)--System builder," 1989.
[40] J. Peckham and F. Maryanski, "Semantic data models,"ACM Comput. Surveys. pp. 153-189, Sept. 1988.
[41] M.H. Penedo and E.D. Stukle, "PMDB: A Project Master Database for Software-Engineering Environments,"Proc. Int'l Conf. Software Engineering, CS Press, Los Alamitos, Calif., 1985, pp. 150-157.
[42] A. Rosenthal and D. Reiner, "Theoretically sound transformations for practical database design," inProc. 6th Int. Conf. Entity-Relationship Approach, 1987, pp. 97-113.
[43] Predict Case User Manual, SAG, 1989.
[44] A. Sheth and J.A. Larson, "Federated Databases: Architectures and Integration,"ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 22, No. 4, Sept. 1990, pp. 183-236.
[45] Maestro II, Data Sheets, Softlab, Jan. 1992.
[46] S. Spaccapietra, C. Parent, and Y. DuPont, "Automating heterogeneous schema integration," Laboratorie de Bases de Donnees, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Tech. Rep. 1991.
[47] T. Strelich, "The Software Life-Cycle Support Environment: A Computer-Based Framework for Developing Software Systems,"SIGSoft Software Eng. Notes, Nov. 1988, pp. 35-44.
[48] S. Y. W. Su, "SAM*: A semantic association model for corporate and scientific statistical databases,"Inform. Sci., vol. 29, pp. 151-199, 1983.
[49] R. Tamassia, G. Di Battista, and C. Batini, "Automatic graph drawing and readability of diagrams,"IEEE Trans. Syst., Man., Cybern., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 61-79, Jan./Feb. 1988.
[50] T. Teorey, G. Wei, D. Bolton, and J. Koenig, "ER model clustering as an aid for user communication and documentation in database design,"Commun. ACM, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 975-987, 1989.
[51] I. Thomas, "PCTE interfaces: Supporting tools in software-engineering environments,"IEEE Software, pp. 15-23, Nov. 1989.
[52] E. Yourdon,Modern Structured Analysis, Yourdon Press, New York, 1989.
[53] J. Winkler, "The entity relationship approach and the information resource dictionary system standard," inProc. Seventh Int. Conf. Entity Relationship Approach. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North-Holland, 1989.
[54] H. K. T. Wong and I. Kuo, "GUIDE: Graphical user interface for database exploration," inProc. 8th VLDB Conf., Mexico City, Mexico, 1982, pp. 22-31.

Index Terms:
structuring primitives; data descriptions; entity relationship data schemas; information system; entity-relationship modelling; relational databases
C. Batini, G. Di Battista, G. Santucci, "Structuring Primitives for a Dictionary of Entity Relationship Data Schemas," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 344-365, April 1993, doi:10.1109/32.223803
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.