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K.W. Miller, L.J. Morell, R.E. Noonan, S.K. Park, D.M. Nicol, B.W. Murrill, M. Voas, "Estimating the Probability of Failure When Testing Reveals No Failures," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 3343, January, 1992.  
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@article{ 10.1109/32.120314, author = {K.W. Miller and L.J. Morell and R.E. Noonan and S.K. Park and D.M. Nicol and B.W. Murrill and M. Voas}, title = {Estimating the Probability of Failure When Testing Reveals No Failures}, journal ={IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering}, volume = {18}, number = {1}, issn = {00985589}, year = {1992}, pages = {3343}, doi = {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/32.120314}, publisher = {IEEE Computer Society}, address = {Los Alamitos, CA, USA}, }  
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TY  JOUR JO  IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering TI  Estimating the Probability of Failure When Testing Reveals No Failures IS  1 SN  00985589 SP33 EP43 EPD  3343 A1  K.W. Miller, A1  L.J. Morell, A1  R.E. Noonan, A1  S.K. Park, A1  D.M. Nicol, A1  B.W. Murrill, A1  M. Voas, PY  1992 KW  failure probability estimation; formulas; random testing results; input distribution; prior assumptions; failure estimate; discrete sample space statistical model; Bayesian prior assumptions; lifecritical applications; Bayes methods; probability; program testing VL  18 JA  IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering ER   
Formulas for estimating the probability of failure when testing reveals no errors are introduced. These formulas incorporate random testing results, information about the input distribution; and prior assumptions about the probability of failure of the software. The formulas are not restricted to equally likely input distributions, and the probability of failure estimate can be adjusted when assumptions about the input distribution change. The formulas are based on a discrete sample space statistical model of software and include Bayesian prior assumptions. Reusable software and software in lifecritical applications are particularly appropriate candidates for this type of analysis.
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