This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
The Delay Due to Dynamic Two-Phase Locking
January 1989 (vol. 15 no. 1)
pp. 72-82

An analytic formula for the delay due to two-phase locking is developed in terms of mean values for the input parameters using an open queuing network model in equilibrium. The results of simulations, using various realistic probability distributions governing the number of locks that transactions request, are presented to validate the formula. Reasonably good accuracy is achieved for gamma distributions over a wide range of parameter settings. The simulations also provided evidence that the rate of deadlock, often disregarded in the literature, can be high in certain heavily utilized databases.

[1] C. Beeri and R. Obermarck, "A resource independent deadlock detection algorithm, " inProc. 7th Int. Conf. Very Large Data Bases, 1981, pp. 166-178.
[2] K. P. Eswaran, J. N. Gray, R. A. Lorie, and I. L. Traiger, "The notions of consistency and predicate locks in a database system,"Commun. ACM, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 624-633, Nov. 1976.
[3] B. I. Galler, "Concurrency control performance issues," Ph.D. thesis, Comput. Sci. Dept., Univ. Toronto, Sept. 1982.
[4] N. Goodman, R. Suri, and Y. C. Tay, "A simple analytic model for performance of exclusive locking in database systems," inProc. 2nd ACM SIGACT-SIGMOD Symp. Principles of Database Systems, 1983, 203-215.
[5] J. N. Gray, P. Homan, P. Korth, and R. Obermarck, "A straw man analysis of the probability of waiting and deadlock in a database system," IBM Res. Lab., San Jose, CA, Tech. Rep. RJ3066, 1981.
[6] K. B. Irani and H. L. Lin, "Queueing network models for concurrent transaction processing in a database system," inProc. ACM-SIGMOD Int. Conf. Management of Data, Boston, MA, Jan. 1979, pp. 134-142.
[7] P. A. Jacobson and E. D. Lazowska, "Analyzing queueing networks with simultaneous resource possession,"Commun. ACM, vol. 25, pp. 142-151, Feb. 1982.
[8] L. Kleinrock,Queueing System, Volume 1: Theory. New York: Wiley, 1975.
[9] S. Lavenberg, "A simple analysis of exclusive and shared lock contention in a database system,"Perform. Eval. Rev., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 143-148, Aug. 1984.
[10] D. Mitra and P. J. Weinberger, "Probabilistic models of database locking: Solutions, computational algorithms and asymptotics,"J. ACM, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 855-878, Oct. 1984.
[11] D. Potier and P. Leblanc, "Analysis of locking policies in database management systems,"Commun. ACM, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 584- 593, Oct. 1980.
[12] D. Ries, "Effects of locking granularity in a database management system,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., Sept. 1977.
[13] D. R. Ries and M. R. Stonebraker, "Locking granularity revisited,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., June 1979.
[14] Y. C. Tay, R. Suri, and N. Goodman, "A mean value performance model for locking in databases: the no-waiting case,"J. ACM, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 618-651, July 1985.
[15] Y.C. Tay, N. Goodman, and R. Suri, "Locking performance in centralized databases,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 415-462, Dec. 1985.
[16] A. Thomasian, "Performance evaluation of centralized databases with static locking,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-11, no. 4, Apr. 1985.
[17] M. Yannakakis, "A theory of safe locking policies in database systems,"J. ACM, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 718-740, July 1982.

Index Terms:
dynamic two-phase locking; open queuing network model; probability distributions; gamma distributions; parameter settings; heavily utilized databases; database theory; distributed databases; queueing theory.
Citation:
C.S. Hartzman, "The Delay Due to Dynamic Two-Phase Locking," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 72-82, Jan. 1989, doi:10.1109/32.21728
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.