This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Single-Site and Distributed Optimistic Protocols for Concurrency Control
August 1988 (vol. 14 no. 8)
pp. 1071-1080

The authors consider that, in spite of their advantage in removing the overhead of lock maintenance and deadlock handling, optimistic concurrency control methods have been applied less in practice than locking schemes. Two complementary approaches are introduced that may help render the optimistic approach practically viable. For the high-level approach, integration schemes can be utilized so that the database management system is provided with a variety of synchronization methods each of which can be applied to the appropriate class of transactions. The low-level approach seeks to increase the concurrency of the original optimistic method and improve its performance. The author examines the low-level approach in depth, and presents algorithms that aim at reducing back-ups and improve throughput. Both the single-site and distributed networks are considered. Optimistic schemes using time-stamps for fully duplicated and partially duplicated database networks are presented, with emphasis on performance enhancement and on reducing the overall cost of implementation.

[1] D. Z. Badal, "Correctness of concurrency control and implication in distributed databases," inProc. COMPSAC '79, 1979.
[2] M. Bassiouni and U. Khamare, "Optimistic concurrency controlschemes for performance enhancement," inProc. IEEE 10thInt. COMPSAC Conf., October 1986, pp. 43-49.
[3] P.A. Bernstein, V. Hadzilacos, and N. Goodman,Concurrency Control and Recovery in Database Systems, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1987.
[4] P. Bernstein and N. Goodman, "Concurrency Control in Distributed Database Systems,"ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 13, No. 2, June 1981, pp. 185-221.
[5] P. Bernstein, D. Shipman, and B. Rothnie, "Concurrency control in a system for distributed database,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 18-51, Mar. 1980.
[6] B. Bhargava, "'Resiliency features of the optimistic concurrency control approach for distributed database systems," inProc. 2nd IEEE Conf. Reliability on Distributed Software and DBS, 1982, pp. 19-32.
[7] C. Boksenbaum, M. Cart, J. Ferrie, and J. F. Pans, "Concurrent certifications by intervals of time stamps in distributed database systems,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-13, pp. 409-419, Apr. 1987.
[8] H. Boral and I. Gold, "Towards a sell adapting centralized concurrency control algorithm," inACM SIGMOD Conf., Boston, MA, June 1984, pp. 18-31.
[9] M. Carey, "Modeling and evalution of concurrency control algorithms," Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. California at Berkeley, 1983.
[10] M. Carey and M. Stonebraker, "The performance of concurrency control algorithms for database management systems," inProc. VLDB, 1984, pp. 107-118.
[11] W. Cheng and G. Belford, "Update synchronization in distributed databases," inProc. VLDB, 1980, pp. 301-308.
[12] S. Davidson, "Optimization and consistency in partitioned distributed database systems,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 456-481, 1984.
[13] D. J. DeWittet al., "Implementation techniques for main memory databases," inProc. ACM Sigmod(Boston, MA), June 18-21, 1984, pp. 1-8.
[14] K. P. Eswaran, J. N. Gray, R. A. Lorie, and I. L. Traiger, "The notions of consistency and predicate locks in a database system,"Commun. ACM, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 624-633, Nov. 1976.
[15] H. T. Kung and J. T. Robinson, "On optimistic methods for concurrency control,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 6, pp. 213-226, June 1981.
[16] L. Lamport, "Time, clocks, and the ordering of events in a distributed system,"Commun. ACM, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 558-565, July 1978.
[17] G. Lausen, "Concurrency control in database systems: a step towards the integration of optimistic methods and locking," inProc. ACM Computer Conf., 1982, pp. 64-68.
[18] W. Lin and J. Nolte, "Basic timestamp, multiple version timestamp, and two-phase locking," inProc. 9th VLDB Conf., Nov. 1983.
[19] M. Maekawa, A. E. Oldehoeft, and R. R. Oldehoeft,Operating Systems: Advanced Concepts. Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings, 1987.
[20] D. A. Menasce, G. J. Popek, and R. R. Muntz, "A locking protocol for resource coordination in distributed databases,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 5, pp. 103-138, June 1980.
[21] P. Peinl and A. Reuter, "Empirical comparison of database concurrency control schemes," inProc. VLDB Conf., Florence, Italy, Oct. 1983, pp. 97-108.
[22] M. Reimer, "Solving the phantom problem by predicative optimistic concurrency control," inProc. VLDB Conf., Florence, Italy, 1983, pp. 81-88.
[23] G. Schlageter, "Optimistic methods for concurrency control in distributed database systems," inProc. VLDB Conf., Cannes, France, Sept. 1981, pp. 125-130.
[24] A. Silberschatz and Z. Kedem, "A family of locking protocols for database systems that are modeled by directed graphs,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-8, no. 6, Nov. 1982.
[25] R. Thomas, "A majority consensus approach to concurrency control,"ACM Trans. Database Syst., vol. 4, pp. 180-209, June 1979.

Index Terms:
distributed protocols; single site protocols; single site networks; distributed databases; optimistic protocols; concurrency control; lock maintenance; deadlock handling; database management system; synchronization methods; distributed networks; time-stamps; performance enhancement; computer networks; distributed databases; protocols; system recovery
M.A. Bassiouni, "Single-Site and Distributed Optimistic Protocols for Concurrency Control," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1071-1080, Aug. 1988, doi:10.1109/32.7617
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.