This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
A taxonomy of scheduling in general-purpose distributed computing systems
February 1988 (vol. 14 no. 2)
pp. 141-154

One measure of the usefulness of a general-purpose distributed computing system is the system's ability to provide a level of performance commensurate to the degree of multiplicity of resources present in the system. A taxonomy of approaches to the resource management problem is presented in an attempt to provide a common terminology and classification mechanism necessary in addressing this problem. The taxonomy, while presented and discussed in terms of distributed scheduling, is also applicable to most types of resource management.

[1] A. K. Agrawala, S. K. Tripathi, and G. Ricart, "Adaptive routing using a virtual waiting time technique,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-8, no. 1, pp. 76-81, Jan. 1982.
[2] J. A. Bannister and K. S. Trivedi, "Task allocation in fault-tolerant distributed systems,"Acta Inform., vol. 20, pp. 261-281, 1983.
[3] J. Bartlett, "A NonStop Kernel," Eighth Sigops, ACM, New York, 1981, pp. 22-29.
[4] S. H. Bokhari, "Dual processor scheduling with dynamic reassignment,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-5, no. 4, pp. 326-334, July 1979.
[5] S. H. Bokhari, "A shortest tree algorithm for optimal assignments across space and time in a distributed processor system,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-7, no. 6, pp. 335-341, Nov. 1981.
[6] R. M. Bryant and R. A. Finkel, "A stable distributed scheduling, algorithm," inProc. 2nd Int. Conf. Dist. Comp., Apr. 1981, pp. 314- 323.
[7] E. S. Buffa,Modern Production Management, 5th ed. New York: Wiley, 1977.
[8] T. L. Casavant and J. G. Kuhl, "Design of a loosely-coupled distributed multiprocessing network," in1984 Int. Conf. Parallel Proc., Aug. 1984, pp. 42-45.
[9] L. M. Casey, "Decentralized scheduling,"Australian Comput. J., vol. 13, pp. 58-63, May 1981.
[10] T. C. K. Chou and J. A. Abraham, "Load balancing in distributed systems,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-8, no. 4, pp. 401- 412, July 1982.
[11] Y. C. Chow and W. H. Kohler, "Models for dynamic load balancing in a heterogeneous multiple processor system,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-28, no. 5, pp. 354-361, May 1979.
[12] E. G. Coffman and P. J. Denning,Operating Systems Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1973.
[13] R. W. Conway, W. L. Maxwell, and L. W. Miller,Theory of Scheduling. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1967.
[14] K. W. Doty, P. L. McEntire, and J. G. O'Reilly, "Task allocation in a distributed computer system," inIEEE InfoCom, 1982, pp. 33- 38.
[15] K. Efe, "Heuristic models of task assignment scheduling in distributed systems,"Computer, vol. 15, pp. 50-56, June 1982.
[16] C. S. Ellis, J. A. Feldman, and J. E. Heliotis, "Language constructs and support systems for distributed computing," inACM SIGACT-SIGOPS Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing, Aug. 1982, pp. 1-9.
[17] P. H. Enslow Jr., "What is a "distributed" data processing system,"Computer, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 13-21, Jan. 1978.
[18] J. R. Evanset al.,Applied Production and Operations Management. St. Paul, MN: West, 1984.
[19] I. Flores,OSMVT. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1973.
[20] M. J. Flynn, "Very high-speed computing systems,"Proc. IEEE, vol. 54, pp. 1901-1909, Dec. 1966.
[21] A. Gabrielian and D. B. Tyler, "Optimal object allocation in distributed computer systems," inProc. 4th Int. Conf. Dist. Comp. Systems, May 1984, pp. 84-95.
[22] M. J. Gonzales, "Deterministic processor scheduling,"ACM Comput. Surveys, vol. 9, no. 3, Sept. 1977.
[23] H. Hellerman and T. F. Conroy,Computer System Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975.
[24] Y. Ho, "Team decision theory and information structures,"Proc. IEEE, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 644-654, June 1980.
[25] E. D. Jensen, "The Honeywell experimental distributed processor-An overview,"Computer, vol. 11, pp. 28-38, Jan. 1978.
[26] A. K. Jones, R. J. Chansler, I. Durham, J. Mohan, K. Schwan, and S. Vegdahl, "Staros, a multiprocessor operating system," inProc. 7th ACM Symp. Operating System Principles, Asilomar, CA, Dec. 10-12, 1979, pp. 117-127.
[27] D. Klappholz and H. C. Park, "Parallelized process scheduling for a tightly-coupled MIMD machine," in1984 Int. Conf. Parallel Proc., Aug. 1984, pp. 315-321.
[28] L. Kleinrock,Queuing Systems, Vol. 2: Computer Applications. New York: Wiley, 1976.
[29] L. Kleinrock and A. Nilsson, "On optimal scheduling algorithms for time-shared systems,"J. ACM, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 477-486, July 1981.
[30] C. P. Kruskal and A. Weiss, "Allocating independent subtasks on parallel processors extended abstract," in1984 Int. Conf. Parallel Proc., Aug. 1984, pp. 236-240.
[31] R. E. Larsen,Tutorial: Distributed Control. New York: IEEE Press, 1979.
[32] G. Le Lann,Motivations, Objectives and Characterizations of Distributed Systems(Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 105). New York: Springer-Verlag, 1981, pp. 1-9.
[33] B. W. Lindgren,Elements of Decision Theory. New York: Mac-Millan, 1971.
[34] V. M. Lo, "Heuristic algorithms for task assignment in distributed systems," inProc. 4th Int. Conf. Dist. Comp. Systems, May 1984, pp. 30-39.
[35] P. Y. R. Ma, E. Y. S. Lee, and J. Tsuchiya, "A task allocation model for distributed computing systems,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C- 31, no. 1, pp. 41-47, Jan. 1982.
[36] R. Manner, "Hardware task/processor scheduling in a polyprocessor environment,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-33, no. 7, pp. 626-636, July 1984.
[37] P. L. McEntire, J. G. O'Reilly, and R. E. Larson,Distributed Computing: Concepts and Implementations. New York: IEEE Press, 1984.
[38] E. Mishkin and L. Braun Jr.,Adaptive Control Systems. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961.
[39] K. Narendra, "Learning automata-A survey,"IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. SMC-4, no. 4, pp. 323-334, July 1974.
[40] L. M. Ni and K. Hwang, "Optimal load balancing strategies for a multiple processor system," inProc. Int. Conf. Parallel Proc., 1981, pp. 352-357.
[41] L. M. Ni and K. Abani, "Nonpreemptive load balancing in a class of local area networks," inProc. Comp. Networking Symp., Dec. 1981, pp. 113-118.
[42] L. M. Ni, K. Hwang, "Optimal load balancing in a multiple processor system with many job classes,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-11, no. 5, pp. 491-496, May 1985.
[43] N. Nilsson,Principles of Artificial Intelligence. Palo Alto, CA: Tioga, 1980.
[44] J. K. Ousterhout, A. Scelza, and P. S. Sindhu, "Medusa: An experiment in distributed operating system structure,"Commun. ACM, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 92-105, Feb. 1980.
[45] G. Popeket al., "LOCUS: A network transparent, high reliability distributed system," inProc. 8th ACM Symp. on Operating Systems Principles, dec. 1981, pp. 169-177.
[46] M. L. Powell and B. P. Miller, "Process migration in DEMOS/MP," inProc. Ninth Symp. Oper. Syst. Principles, Bretton Woods, NH, Oct. 1983, pp. 110-119.
[47] C. C. Price and S. Krishnaprasad, "Software allocation models for distributed computing systems," inProc. 4th Int. Conf. Dist. Comp. Systems, May 1984, pp. 40-48.
[48] C. Shen and W. Tsai, "A graph matching approach to optimal task assignment in distributed computing systems using a minimax criterion,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-34, no. 3, pp. 197-203, Mar. 1985.
[49] R. G. Smith, "The contract net protocol: High-level communication and control in a distributed problem solver,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-29, no. 12, pp. 1104-1113, Dec. 1980.
[50] M. H. Solomon and R. A. Finkel, "The Roscoe distributed operating system," inProc. ACM-SIGOPS 7th Symp. Oper. Syst. Principles, Dec. 1979, pp. 108-114.
[51] J. A. Stankovicet al., "An evaluation of the applicability of different mathematical approaches to the analysis of decentralized control algorithms," inProc. IEEE COMPSAC 82, Nov. 1982, pp. 62-69.
[52] J. A. Stankovic and I. S. Sidhu, "An adaptive bidding algorithm for processes, clusters and distributed groups," inProc. 4th Int. Conf. Dist. Comp. Systems, May 1984, pp. 49-59.
[53] J. A. Stankovic, "Simulations of three adaptive, decentralized controlled, job scheduling algorithms,"Comput. Networks, pp. 199-217, June 1984.
[54] J. A. Stankovic, "A perspective on distributed computer systems,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-33, no. 12, pp. 1102-1115, Dec. 1984.
[55] J. A. Stankovic, "An application of Bayesian decision theory to decentralized control of job scheduling,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-34,no. 2, pp. 117-130, Feb. 1985.
[56] J. A. Stankovicet al., "A review of current research and critical issues in distributed system software,"IEEE Comput. Soc. Distributed Processing Tech. Committee Newslett., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 14- 47, Mar. 1985.
[57] H. S. Stone, "Critical load factors in two-processor distributed systems,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-4, no. 3, pp. 254-258, May 1978.
[58] H. S. Stone and S. H. Bokhari, "Control of distributed processes,"Computer, vol. 11, pp. 97-106, July 1978.
[59] H. Sullivan, T. Bashkow, and D. Klappholtz, "A large scale homogeneous, fully distributed parallel machine," inProc. 4th Symp. Comput. Architecture, June 1977, pp. 105-124.
[60] A. S. Tanenbaum,Computer Networks, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981.
[61] D. P. Tsay and M. T. Liu, "MIKE: A network operating system for the distributed double-loop computer network,"IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. SE-9, no. 2, pp. 143-154, Mar. 1983.
[62] D. C. Tsichritzis and P. A. Bernstein,Operating Systems. New York: Academic, 1974.
[63] K. Vairavan and R. A. DeMillo, "On the computational complexity of a generalized scheduling problem,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C- 25, no. 11, pp. 1067-1073, Nov. 1976.
[64] R. A. Wagner and K. S. Trivedi, "Hardware configuration selection through discretizing a continuous variable solution," inProc. 7th IFIP Symp. Comp. Performance Modeling, Measurement and Evaluation, Toronto, Canada, 1980, pp. 127-142.
[65] Y. T. Wang and R.J. T. Morris, "Load sharing in distributed systems,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol. C-34, no. 3, pp. 204-217, Mar. 1985.
[66] M. O. Ward and D. J. Romero, "Assigning parallel-executable, intercommunicating subtasks to processors," in1984 Int. Conf. Parallel Proc., Aug. 1984, pp. 392-394.
[67] L. D. Wittie and A. M. Van Tilborg, "MICROS: A distributed operating system for MICRONET, a reconfigurable network computer,"IEEE Trans. Comput., vol C-29, no. 12, pp. 1133-1144, Dec. 1980.

Index Terms:
operating systems; scheduling; distributed computing; resource management; distributed scheduling; distributed processing; operating systems (computers); scheduling
Citation:
T.L. Casavant, J.G. Kuhl, "A taxonomy of scheduling in general-purpose distributed computing systems," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 141-154, Feb. 1988, doi:10.1109/32.4634
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.