The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.02 - March-April (2013 vol.10)
pp: 84-98
J. Freudiger , Sch. of Comput. & Commun. Sci., EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
M. H. Manshaei , Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Isfahan Univ. of Technol., Isfahan, Iran
Jean-Pierre Hubaux , Sch. of Comput. & Commun. Sci., EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
D. C. Parkes , Sch. of Eng. & Appl. Sci. (SEAS), Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, USA
ABSTRACT
In mobile networks, authentication is a required primitive for most security protocols. Unfortunately, an adversary can monitor pseudonyms used for authentication to track the location of mobile nodes. A frequently proposed solution to protect location privacy suggests that mobile nodes collectively change their pseudonyms in regions called mix zones. This approach is costly. Self-interested mobile nodes might, thus, decide not to cooperate and jeopardize the achievable location privacy. In this paper, we analyze non-cooperative behavior of mobile nodes by using a game-theoretic model, where each player aims at maximizing its location privacy at a minimum cost. We obtain Nash equilibria in static n-player complete information games. As in practice mobile nodes do not know their opponents' payoffs, we then consider static incomplete information games. We establish that symmetric Bayesian-Nash equilibria exist with simple threshold strategies. By means of numerical results, we predict behavior of selfish mobile nodes. We then investigate dynamic games where players decide to change their pseudonym one after the other and show how this affects strategies at equilibrium. Finally, we design protocols-PseudoGame protocols-based on the results of our analysis and simulate their performance in vehicular network scenarios.
INDEX TERMS
Privacy, Games, Peer to peer computing, Protocols, network protocols, Security and privacy protection, mobile computing
CITATION
J. Freudiger, M. H. Manshaei, Jean-Pierre Hubaux, D. C. Parkes, "Non-Cooperative Location Privacy", IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, vol.10, no. 2, pp. 84-98, March-April 2013, doi:10.1109/TDSC.2012.85
REFERENCES
[1] "SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility): An Open-Source Traffic Simulator," http:/sumo.sourceforge.net, 2012.
[2] "TIGER Maps," http://www.census.gov/geo/wwwtiger, 2012.
[3] "WiFi Alliance," Wi-Fi CERTIFIED Wi-Fi Direct: Personal, Portable Wi-Fi that Goes with You Anywhere, Any Time, http://www. wi-fi.orgWi-Fi_Direct.php, 2010.
[4] A.R. Beresford and F. Stajano, "Mix Zones: User Privacy in Location-Aware Services," Proc. Pervasive Computing and Comm. Workshops, pp. 127-131, 2004.
[5] Official Nokia Blog, "Nokia Instant Community Gets You Social," http://conversations.nokia.com/2010/05/25 nokia-instant- community-gets-you-social , 2010.
[6] L. Buttyan, T. Holczer, and I. Vajda, "On the Effectiveness of Changing Pseudonyms to Provide Location Privacy in VANETs," Proc. Fourth European Conf. Security and Privacy in Ad-Hoc and Sensor Networks (ESAS), 2007.
[7] D. Chaum, "Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses, and Digital Pseudonyms," Comm. ACM, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 84-90, Feb. 1981.
[8] S.F. Cheng, D.M. Reeves, Y. Vorobeychik, and W.P. Wellman, "Notes on Equilibria in Symmetric Games," Proc. Workshop Game-Theoretic and Decision-Theoretic Agents, 2004.
[9] R. Cooper, Coordination Games. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998.
[10] K. Fall, "A Delay-Tolerant Network Architecture for Challenged Internets," Proc. SIGCOMM, 2003.
[11] J. Freudiger, M. Raya, M. Felegyhazi, P. Papadimitratos, and J.-P. Hubaux, "Mix Zones for Location Privacy in Vehicular Networks," Proc. ACM Workshop Wireless Networking for Intelligent Transportation Systems (WiN-ITS), 2007.
[12] J. Freudiger, R. Shokri, and J.-P. Hubaux, "On the Optimal Placement of Mix Zones," Proc. Ninth Int'l Symp. Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETS), 2009.
[13] D. Fudenberg and J. Tirole, Game Theory. MIT Press, 1991.
[14] M. Gruteser and D. Grunwald, "Enhancing Location Privacy in Wireless LAN through Disposable Interface Identifiers: A Quantitative Analysis," Mobile Network Applications, vol. 10, pp. 315-325, 2005.
[15] J. Harsanyi, "Games with Incomplete Information Played by Bayesian Players," Management Science, vol. 14, pp. 486-502, 1967.
[16] H. Hartenstein and K. Laberteaux, "A Tutorial Survey on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 164-171, June 2008.
[17] B. Hoh, M. Gruteser, R. Herring, J. Ban, D. Work, J.-C. Herrera, A.M. Bayen, M. Annavaram, and Q. Jacobson, "Virtual Trip Lines for Distributed Privacy-Preserving Traffic Monitoring," Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys), pp. 15-28, 2008.
[18] B. Hoh, M. Gruteser, H. Xiong, and A. Alrabady, "Preserving Privacy in GPS Traces via Path Cloaking," Proc. 14th ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS), 2007.
[19] L. Huang, K. Matsuura, H. Yamane, and K. Sezaki, "Enhancing Wireless Location Privacy Using Silent Period," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. Networking Conf. (ECNC), 2005.
[20] L. Huang, K. Matsuura, H. Yamane, and K. Sezaki, "Towards Modeling Wireless Location Privacy," Proc. Fifth Int'l Conf. Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PET), 2005.
[21] M. Humbert, M.H. Manshaei, J. Freudiger, and J.-P. Hubaux, "Tracking Games in Mobile Networks," Poc. Conf. Decision and Game Theory for Security, 2010.
[22] M. Li, K. Sampigethaya, L. Huang, and R. Poovendran, "Swing & Swap: User-Centric Approaches Towards Maximizing Location Privacy," Proc. Fifth ACM Workshop Privacy in Electronic Soc. (WPES), 2006.
[23] J. Nash, "Non-Cooperative Games," Ann. of Math., vol. 54, pp. 286-295, 1951.
[24] D.M. Reeves and M.P. Wellman, "Computing Best-Response Strategies in Infinite Games of Incomplete Information," Proc. 20th Conf. Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, pp. 470-478, 2004.
[25] K. Sampigethaya, L. Huang, M. Li, R. Poovendran, K. Matsuura, and K. Sezaki, "CARAVAN: Providing Location Privacy for VANET," Proc. Embedded Security in Cars (ESCAR), 2005.
[26] E. Schoch, F. Kargl, T. Leinmuller, S. Schlott, and P. Papadimitratos, "Impact of Pseudonym Changes on Geographic Routing in VANETs," Proc. Third European Workshop Security and Privacy in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (ESAS), 2006.
[27] A. Serjantov and G. Danezis, "Towards an Information Theoretic Metric for Anonymity," Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PET), 2002.
[28] S. Vasudevan, J. Kurose, and D. Towsley, "On Neighbor Discovery in Wireless Networks with Directional Antennas," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2005.
[29] X. Wu, S. Tavildar, S. Shakkottai, T. Richardson, J. Li, R. Laroia, and A. Jovicic, "FlashLinQ: A Synchronous Distributed Scheduler for Peer-to-Peer Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. 48th Ann. Allerton Conf. Comm., Control, and Computing, pp. 514-521, 2010.
28 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool