The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.06 - Nov.-Dec. (2012 vol.9)
pp: 930-943
Jennifer T. Jackson , University of Warwick, Coventry
Sadie Creese , University of Oxford, Oxford
The growth in the use of Smartphones and other mobile computing devices continues to grow rapidly. As mobile wireless communications become ubiquitous, the networks and systems that depend upon them will become more complex. In parallel with this, the spread of digital viruses and malicious content will be an ever increasing threat within this interconnected paradigm requiring counteracting mechanisms to continuously adapt. Current security solutions for mobile devices remain limited in their ability to protect particularly against zero-day attacks. Understanding the propagation characteristics of malware could provide a means to planning protection strategies, but modeling virus propagation behavior in mobile wireless and peer-to-peer communications devices is still immature. A compartmental-based virus propagation model has been developed for Bluetooth communication networks incorporating wireless technological traits and factors that are known to affect virus propagation including human behaviors, heterogeneous devices, and antivirus measures. The model is novel in the richness of its treatment of human factors alongside the technology factors that could impact spread. A simulation scenario, together with an analysis of the spreading dynamics has been conducted to determine how a Bluetooth virus might spread under different conditions. Although demonstrated through Bluetooth, the approach is applicable to malware propagation in general.
Bluetooth, Viruses (medical), Human factors, Mathematical model, Smart phones, Mobile communication, Ubiquitous computing, wireless, Human factors, invasive software (viruses, worms, trojan horses), pervasive computing
Jennifer T. Jackson, Sadie Creese, "Virus Propagation in Heterogeneous Bluetooth Networks with Human Behaviors", IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, vol.9, no. 6, pp. 930-943, Nov.-Dec. 2012, doi:10.1109/TDSC.2012.72
[1] "Gartner Says Sales of Mobile Devices in Second Quarter of 2011 Grew 16.5 Percent Year-on-Year; Smartphone Sales Grew 74 Percent,", 2012.
[2] "Mobile Malware Evolution: An Overview, Part 1," Kaspersky, , 2012.
[3] W. Xia, Z. Li, Z. Chen, and Z. Yuan, "Dynamic Epidemic Model of Smart Phone Virus Propagated through Bluetooth and MMS," Proc. IET Conf. Wireless, Mobile and Sensor Networks, pp. 948-953, 2007.
[4] "Bluetooth Special Interest Group," http:/, 2012.
[5] K. Scarfone and J. Padgette, Guide to Bluetooth Security, Nat'l Inst. of Standards and Tech nology, 2008.
[6] L. Carettoni, C. Merloni, and S. Zanero, "Studying Bluetooth Malware Propagation: The BlueBag Project," IEEE Security and Privacy, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 17-25, Mar. 2007.
[7] D.J. Daley and J. Gani, Epidemic Modelling: An Introduction. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1999.
[8] M.G. Roberts and J.A.P. Heesterbeek, "Mathematical Models in Epidemiology," Mathematical Models, EOLSS, 2003.
[9] H. Zheng, D. Li, and Z. Gao, "An Epidemic Model of Mobile Phone Virus," Proc. Symp. Pervasive Computing and Applications, pp. 1-5, 2006.
[10] R.W. Thommes and M.J. Coates, "Modeling Virus Propagation in Peer-to-Peer Networks," Proc. Conf. Information, Comm. and Signal Processing, 2005.
[11] G. Ben-hua and C. Shao-hong, "The SIS-BD Model of Computer Virus Spreading on Internet," Proc. Conf. Wireless Comm., Networking and Mobile Computing, pp. 2200-2203, 2007.
[12] G. Yan, L. Cuellar, S. Eidenbenz, H.D. Flores, N. Hengartner, and V. Vu, "Bluetooth Worm Propagation: Mobility Pattern Matters!" Proc. ACM Symp. Information, Computer and Comm. Security, pp. 32-44, 2007.
[13] J. Su and K.K.W. Chan, "A Preliminary Investigation of Worm Infections in a Bluetooth Environment," Proc. ACM Workshop Recurring Malcode (WORM), 2006.
[14] P. Wang, M.C. Gonzalez, C.A. Hidalgo, and A.-L. Barabasi, "Understanding the Spreading Patterns of Mobile Phone Viruses," Science, vol. 324, no. 22, pp. 1071-1076, May 2009.
[15] A. Bose and K.G. Shin, "On Mobile Viruses Exploiting Messaging and Bluetooth Services," Proc. Conf. Securecomm and Workshops, pp. 1-10, 2006.
[16] C. Gao and J. Liu, "Modeling and Restraining Mobile Virus Propagation," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, Early access article, no. 99, 2012.
[17] P. Samar and S.B. Wicker, "On the Behavior of Communication Links of a Node in a Multi-Hop Mobile Environment," Proc. ACM Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, 2004.
[18] D. Stevens, "Is Your PC Virus-Free? Get It Infected Here!" is-your-pc-virus-free-get- it-infected-here /, 2012.
[19] Ann. Security Report, Cisco, 2008.
[20] "AV-Test Release Latest Results," Virus Bull., http://www., 2012.
[21] J. Hollis, Focus on London 2010: Population and Migration, O.f.N. Statistics, 2010.
[22] "A Nation Addicted to Smartphones," http://media.ofcom. /, 2012.
[23] Average Speed of a Car in London is Just 7mph, Says Citroen, http://www.bikeforall.netnews.php?articleshow=229 , 2006.
[24] "Orders of Magnitude (Speed)," , 2012.
[25] J.M. Heffernan, R.J. Smith, and L.M. Wahl, "Perspectives on the Basic Reproductive Ratio," J. Royal Soc. Interface, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 281-293, Sept. 2005.
[26] D. Moore, V. Paxson, S. Savage, C. Shannon, S. Staniford, and N. Weaver, "Inside the Slammer Worm," IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 33-39, July/Aug. 2003.
41 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool