The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.05 - September/October (2011 vol.8)
pp: 625-639
Richard Ekwall , EPFL, Lausanne
André Schiper , EPFL, Lausanne
ABSTRACT
Many atomic broadcast algorithms have been published in the last 20 years. Token-based algorithms represent a large class of these algorithms. Interestingly, all the token-based atomic broadcast algorithms rely on a group membership service and none of them uses unreliable failure detectors directly. This paper presents the first token-based atomic broadcast algorithm that uses an unreliable failure detector instead of a group membership service. It requires a system size that is quadratic in the number of supported failures. The special case of a single supported failure (f=1) requires n=3 processes. We experimentally evaluate the performance of this algorithm in local and wide area networks, in order to emphasize that atomic broadcast is efficiently implemented by combining a failure detector and a token-based mechanism. The evaluation shows that the new token-based algorithm surpasses the performance of the other algorithms in most small-system settings.
INDEX TERMS
Distributed systems, fault tolerance, performance measurements.
CITATION
Richard Ekwall, André Schiper, "A Fault-Tolerant Token-Based Atomic Broadcast Algorithm", IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, vol.8, no. 5, pp. 625-639, September/October 2011, doi:10.1109/TDSC.2010.24
REFERENCES
[1] Token Passing Bus Access Method, ANSI/IEEE Standard 802.4, 1985.
[2] L. Alvisi and K. Marzullo, "Waft: Support for Fault-Tolerance in Wide-Area Object Oriented Systems," Proc. Second Information Survivability Workshop (ISW '98), pp. 5-10, Oct. 1998.
[3] Y. Amir, L. Moser, P. Melliar-Smith, D. Agarwal, and P. Ciarfella, "The Totem Single-Ring Ordering and Membership Protocol," ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 311-342, Nov. 1995.
[4] T. Anker, D. Dolev, G. Greenman, and I. Shnayderman, "Evaluating Total Order Algorithms in WAN," Proc. Int'l Workshop Large-Scale Group Comm., Oct. 2003.
[5] O. Bakr and I. Keidar, "Evaluating the Running Time of a Communication Round over the Internet," PODC '02: Proc. 21st Ann. Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC '02), pp. 243-252, 2002.
[6] K. Birman, A. Schiper, and P. Stephenson, "Lightweight Causal and Atomic Group Multicast," ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 272-314, Aug. 1991.
[7] F. Cappello, E. Caron, M. Dayde, F. Desprez, E. Jeannot, Y. Jegou, S. Lanteri, J. Leduc, N. Melab, G. Mornet, R. Namyst, P. Primet, and O. Richard, "Grid '5000: A Large Scale, Reconfigurable, Controlable and Monitorable Grid Platform," Proc IEEE/ACM Workshop (Grid '05), Nov. 2005.
[8] T. Chandra, R. Griesemer, and J. Redstone, "Paxos Made Live: An Engineering Perspective," Proc. 26th Ann. ACM Symp. Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC '07), pp. 398-407, 2007.
[9] T.D. Chandra and S. Toueg, "Unreliable Failure Detectors for Reliable Distributed Systems," J. ACM, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 225-267, 1996.
[10] J.M. Chang and N. Maxemchuck, "Reliable Broadcast Protocols," ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 251-273, Aug. 1984.
[11] W. Chen, S. Toueg, and M.K. Aguilera, "On the Quality of Service of Failure Detectors," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 51, no. 2 pp. 561-580, May 2002.
[12] G.V. Chockler, I. Keidar, and R. Vitenberg, "Group Communication Specifications: A Comprehensive Study," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 4, no. 33, pp. 1-43, Dec. 2001.
[13] A. Coccoli, P. Urbán, A. Bondavalli, and A. Schiper, "Performance Analysis of a Consensus Algorithm Combining Stochastic Activity Networks and Measurements," Proc. Int'l Conf. Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN '02), pp. 551-560, June 2002.
[14] F. Cristian, "Reaching Agreement on Processor Group Membership in Synchronous Distributed Systems," Distributed Computing, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 175-187, Apr. 1991.
[15] F. Cristian, S. Mishra, and G. Alvarez, "High-Performance Asynchronous Atomic Broadcast," Distributed System Eng. J., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 109-128, June 1997.
[16] X. Défago, A. Schiper, and P. Urbán, "Total Order Broadcast and Multicast Algorithms: Taxonomy and Survey," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 372-421, Dec. 2004.
[17] R. Ekwall, "Atomic Broadcast: A Fault-Tolerant Token Based Algorithm and Performance Evaluations," PhD thesis, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, May 2007.
[18] R. Ekwall and A. Schiper, "Comparing Atomic Broadcast Algorithms in High Latency Networks," Technical Report LSR-Report-2006-003, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Switzerland, July 2006.
[19] R. Ekwall and A. Schiper, "A Fault-Tolerant Token Based Atomic Broadcast Algorithm," Technical Report LSR-REPORT-2010-001, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Jan. 2010.
[20] R. Ekwall, A. Schiper, and P. Urbán, "Token-Based Atomic Broadcast Using Unreliable Failure Detectors," Proc. 23rd IEEE Symp. Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS-23), Oct. 2004.
[21] R. Friedman and R. van Renesse, "Packing Messages as a Tool for Boosting the Performance of Total Ordering Protocols," Proc. Sixth IEEE Symp. High Performance Distributed Computing, pp. 233-242, Aug. 1997.
[22] R. Guerraoui, R.R. Levy, B. Pochon, and V. Quéma, "High Throughput Total Order Broadcast for Cluster Environments," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN '06), June 2006.
[23] V. Hadzilacos and S. Toueg, "Fault-Tolerant Broadcasts and Related Problems," Technical Report 94-1425, Dept. of Computer Science, Cornell Univ., May 1994.
[24] K. Kanoun, H. Madeira, and J. Arlat, "A Framework for Dependability Benchmarking," Proc. Workshop Dependability Benchmarking (Jointly Organized with DSN '02), pp. F7-F8, June 2002.
[25] M. Larrea, S. Arevalo, and A. Fernandez, "Efficient Algorithms to Implement Unreliable Failure Detectors in Partially Synchronous Systems," Proc. Int'l Symp. Distributed Computing, pp. 34-48, 1999.
[26] Y. Lin, B. Kemme, M. Patiño-Martínez, and R. Jiménez-Peris, "Consistent Data Replication: Is It Feasible in WANs?," Proc. 11th Euro-Par Conf., pp. 633-643, Sept. 2005.
[27] N.F. Maxemchuk and D.H. Shur, "An Internet Multicast System for the Stock Market," ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 384-412, Aug. 2001.
[28] S. Mena, A. Schiper, and P. Wojciechowski, "A Step Towards a New Generation of Group Communication Systems," Proc. Int'l Middleware Conf., pp. 414-432, June 2003.
[29] A. Mostefaoui and M. Raynal, "Solving Consensus Using Chandra-Toueg's Unreliable Failure Detectors: A Synthetic Approach," Proc. 13th. Int'l Symp. Distributed Computing (DISC '99), Sept. 1999.
[30] A. Schiper and S. Toueg, "From Set Membership to Group Membership: A Separation of Concerns," IEEE Trans. Dependable and Secure Computing, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 2-12, Jan.-Mar. 2006.
[31] F.B. Schneider, "Replication Management Using the State-Machine Approach," Distributed Systems, S. Mullender, ed., pp. 169-197, ACM Press, 1993.
[32] A. Sousa, J. Pereira, F. Moura, and R. Oliveira, "Optimistic Total Order in Wide Area Networks," Proc. 21st IEEE Symp. Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS-21), pp. 190-199, Oct. 2002.
[33] P. Urbán, "Evaluating the Performance of Distributed Agreement Algorithms: Tools, Methodology and Case Studies," PhD thesis, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Aug. 2003.
[34] P. Urbán, X. Défago, and A. Schiper, "Neko: A Single Environment to Simulate and Prototype Distributed Algorithms," J. Information Science and Eng., vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 981-997, Nov. 2002.
[35] P. Urbán, N. Hayashibara, A. Schiper, and T. Katayama, "Performance Comparison of a Rotating Coordinator and a Leader Based Consensus Algorithm," Proc. 23rd IEEE Symp. Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS), pp. 4-17, Oct. 2004.
[36] P. Urbán, I. Shnayderman, and A. Schiper, "Comparison of Failure Detectors and Group Membership: Performance Study of two Atomic Broadcast Algorithms," Proc. Int'l Conf. Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN), pp. 645-654, June 2003.
[37] P. Vicente and L. Rodrigues, "An Indulgent Total Order Algorithm with Optimistic Delivery," Proc. 21st IEEE Symp. Reliable Distributed Systems (SRDS-21), pp. 92-101, Oct. 2002.
[38] B. Whetten, T. Montgomery, and S.M. Kaplan, "A High Performance Totally Ordered Multicast Protocol," Proc. Dagstuhl Seminar on Distributed Systems, pp. 33-57, 1994.
38 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool