The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.04 - October-December (2010 vol.7)
pp: 366-380
Shravan Gaonkar , University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana
Kimberly Keeton , Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Palo Alto
Arif Merchant , Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Palo Alto
William H. Sanders , University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana
The costs of data loss and unavailability can be large, so businesses use many data protection techniques such as remote mirroring, snapshots, and backups to guard against failures. Choosing an appropriate combination of techniques is difficult because there are numerous approaches for protecting data and allocating resources. Storage system architects typically use ad hoc techniques, often resulting in overengineered expensive solutions or underprovisioned inadequate ones. In contrast, this paper presents a principled automated approach for designing dependable storage solutions for multiple applications in shared environments. Our contributions include search heuristics for intelligent exploration of the large design space and modeling techniques for capturing interactions between applications during recovery. Using realistic storage system requirements, we show that our design tool produces designs that cost up to two times less in initial outlays and expected data penalties than the designs produced by an emulated human design process. Additionally, we compare our design tool to a random search heuristic and a genetic algorithm metaheuristic, and show that our approach consistently produces better designs for the cases we have studied. Finally, we study the sensitivity of our design tool to several input parameters.
Data protection techniques, design space exploration, discrete-event simulation, genetic algorithm, search heuristic, storage system design.
Shravan Gaonkar, Kimberly Keeton, Arif Merchant, William H. Sanders, "Designing Dependable Storage Solutions for Shared Application Environments", IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, vol.7, no. 4, pp. 366-380, October-December 2010, doi:10.1109/TDSC.2008.38
[1] K. Keeton, C. Santos, D. Beyer, J. Chase, and J. Wilkes, "Designing for Disasters," Proc. Third Usenix Conf. File and Storage Technologies (FAST '04), pp. 59-72, Mar. 2004.
[2] K. Keeton and A. Merchant, "A Framework for Evaluating Storage System Dependability," Proc. Intl. Conf. Dependable Systems and Networks (DSN '04), pp. 877-886, June 2004.
[3] D.A. Patterson, G. Gibson, and R.H. Katz, "A Case for Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)," Proc. ACM SIGMOD '88, pp. 109-116, June 1988.
[4] M. Ji, A. Veitch, and J. Wilkes, "Seneca: Remote Mirroring Done Write," Proc. Usenix Ann. Technical Conf. (USENIX '03), pp. 253-268, 2003.
[5] R.R. Schulman, Disaster Recovery Issues and Solutions, white paper, Hitachi Data Systems, , Sept. 2004.
[6] A. Azagury, M.E. Factor, and J. Satran, "Point-in-Time Copy: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow," Proc. IEEE/NASA Conf. Mass Storage Systems (MSS '02), pp. 259-270, Apr. 2002.
[7] A. Chervenak, V. Vellanki, and Z. Kurmas, "Protecting File Systems: A Survey of Backup Techniques," Proc. IEEE/NASA Conf. Mass Storage Systems (MSS '98), pp. 17-31, Mar. 1998.
[8] HP OpenView Storage Data Protector Administrator's Guide. Hewlett-Packard Development, mfg. Part Number B6960-90106, Release A.05.50, Oct. 2004.
[9] W.D. Zhu, J. Cerruti, A.A. Genta, H. Koenig, H. Schiavi, and T. Talone, IBM Content Manager Backup/Recovery and High Availability: Strategies, Options and Procedures. IBM Redbook, Mar. 2004.
[10] E. Dicke, A. Byde, P.J. Layzell, and D. Cliff, "Using a Genetic Algorithm to Design and Improve Storage Area Network Architectures," Proc. Genetic and Evolutionary Computation (GECCO '04), pp. 1066-1077, 2004.
[11] Online Survey Results: 2001 Cost of Downtime, www.contingency planningresearch.com2001%20Survey.pdf , Eagle Rock Alliance Ltd., Aug. 2001.
[12] G.A. Alvarez, "Minerva: An Automated Resource Provisioning Tool for Large-Scale Storage Systems," ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 483-518, Nov. 2001.
[13] E. Anderson, R. Swaminathan, A. Veitch, G.A. Alvarez, and J. Wilkes, "Selecting RAID Levels for Disk Arrays," Proc. First Usenix Conf. File and Storage Technologies (FAST '02), pp. 189-201, 2002.
[14] E. Anderson, S. Spence, R. Swaminathan, M. Kallahalla, and Q. Wang, "Quickly Finding Near-Optimal Storage Designs," ACM Trans. Computer Systems, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 337-374, 2005.
[15] K. Keeton, D. Beyer, E. Brau, A. Merchant, C. Santos, and A. Zhang, "On the Road to Recovery: Restoring Data after Disasters," Proc. European Systems Conf. (EuroSys '06), pp. 235-248, Apr. 2006.
[16] F. Azadivar, "Simulation Optimization Methodologies," Proc. 31st Winter Simulation Conf. (WSC '99), pp. 93-100, 1999.
[17] Y. Carson and A. Maria, "Simulation Optimization: Methods and Applications," Proc. 29th Winter Simulation Conf. (WSC '97), pp. 118-126, 1997.
[18] T.G. Kolda, R.M. Lewis, and V. Torczon, "Optimization by Direct Search: New Perspectives on Some Classical and Modern Methods," SIAM Rev., vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 385-482, July 2003.
[19] M. Groetschel, "Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Combinatorial Problem Solving," Proc. Third ACM-SIAM Symp. Discrete Algorithms (SODA '92), p. 195, 1992.
[20] A.W. Johnson and S.H. Jacobson, "A Class of Convergent Generalized Hill Climbing Algorithms," Applied Math. and Computation, vol. 125, nos. 2-3, pp. 359-373, 2002.
[21] S. Nahar, S. Sahni, and E. Shragowitz, "Simulated Annealing and Combinatorial Optimization," Proc. 23rd ACM/IEEE Conf. Design Automation (DAC '86), pp. 293-299, 1986.
[22] M. Dorigo and T. Stützle, Ant Colony Optimization. MIT Press, 2004.
[23] F. Glover and M. Lagun, Tabu Search. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.
[24] D.E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization, and Machine Learning. Addison-Wesley Professional, Jan. 1989.
[25] C.H. Papadimitriou and K. Steiglitz, Combinatorial Optimization: Algorithms and Complexity. Dover Publications, 1998.
36 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool