The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.04 - October-December (2008 vol.5)
pp: 208-223
ABSTRACT
Inspired by unidirectional error detecting codes that are used in situations where only one kind of bit errors are possible (e.g., it is possible to change a bit "0" into a bit "1", but not the contrary), we propose integrity codes (I-codes) for a radio communication channel, which enable integrity protection of messages exchanged between entities that do not hold any mutual authentication material (i.e. public keys or shared secret keys). The construction of I-codes enables a sender to encode any message such that if its integrity is violated in transmission over a radio channel, the receiver is able to detect it. In order to achieve this, we rely on the physical properties of the radio channel and on unidirectional error detecting codes. We analyze in detail the use of I-codes on a radio communication channel and we present their implementation on a wireless platform as a "proof of concept". We further introduce a novel concept called "authentication through presence", whose broad applications include broadcast authentication, key establishment and navigation signal protection. We perform a detailed analysis of the security of our coding scheme and we show that it is secure within a realistic attacker model.
INDEX TERMS
Security, integrity, and protection, Wireless systems
CITATION
Srdjan Čapkun, Mario Čagalj, Ramkumar Rengaswamy, Ilias Tsigkogiannis, Jean-Pierre Hubaux, Mani Srivastava, "Integrity Codes: Message Integrity Protection and Authentication over Insecure Channels", IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, vol.5, no. 4, pp. 208-223, October-December 2008, doi:10.1109/TDSC.2008.11
REFERENCES
[1] Gnu Radio: The Gnu Software Radio, http://www.gnu.org/software/gnuradioindex.html , 2008.
[2] MadWifi: Multiband Atheros Driver for Wireless Fidelity, http:/madwifi.org/, 2008.
[3] Mica Sensor Platform, http:/www.xbow.com, 2008.
[4] B. Alpern and F. Schneider, “Key Exchange Using Keyless Cryptography,” Information Processing Letters, vol. 16, no. 2, pp.79-82, 1983.
[5] N. Asokan and P. Ginzboorg, “Key Agreement in Ad Hoc Networks,” Computer Comm., vol. 23, no. 17, pp. 1627-1637, Nov. 2000.
[6] D. Balfanz, D. Smetters, P. Stewart, and H. Wong, “Talking to Strangers: Authentication in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. Ninth Ann. Network and Distributed System Security Symp. (NDSS), 2002.
[7] J.M. Berger, “A Note on Error Detecting Codes for Asymmetric Channel,” Information and Control, vol. 4, pp. 68-73, 1961.
[8] M. Blaum and H. van Tilborg, “On $t\hbox{-}{\rm Error}$ Correcting/All Unidirectional Error Detecting Codes,” IEEE Trans. Computers, pp. 1493-1501, 1989.
[9] J.M. Borden, “Optimal Asymmetric Error Detecting Codes,” Information and Control, vol. 53, pp. 66-73, 1982.
[10] C. Castelluccia and P. Mutaf, “Shake Them Up! A Movement-Based Pairing Protocol for CPU-Constrained Devices,” Proc. Third ACM/Usenix Int'l Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications and Services (MobiSys), 2005.
[11] M. Corner and B. Noble, “Protecting Applications with Transient Authentication,” Proc. First ACM/Usenix Int'l Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications and Services (MobiSys '03), May 2003.
[12] C. Gehrmann, C.J. Mitchell, and K. Nyberg, “Manual Authentication for Wireless Devices,” RSA Cryptobytes, vol. 7, no. 1, Jan. 2004.
[13] C. Gehrmann and K. Nyberg, “Enhancements to Bluetooth Baseband Security,” Proc. Sixth Nordic Workshop Secure IT Systems (NordSec '01), Nov. 2001.
[14] I. Getting, “The Global Positioning System,” IEEE Spectrum, Dec. 1993.
[15] S. Han, R. Rengaswamy, R. Shea, E. Kohler, and M. Srivastava, “A Dynamic Operating System for Sensor Nodes,” Proc. Third ACM/Usenix Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications and Services (MobiSys), 2005.
[16] M.G. Kuhn, “An Asymmetric Security Mechanism for Navigation Signals,” Proc. Sixth Int'l Workshop Information Hiding (IH), 2004.
[17] J.-O. Larsson and M. Jakobsson, SHAKE, private comm. with M.Jakobsson, 2006.
[18] E.L. Leiss, “Data Integrity on Digital Optical Discs,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 33, pp. 818-827, 1984.
[19] A.K. Lenstra, and E.R. Verheul, “Selecting Cryptographic Key Sizes,” J. Cryptology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 255-293, 2001.
[20] D.P. Maher, Secure Communication Method and Apparatus, USPatent 5,450,493, Patent and Trademark Office, http:/www. uspto.gov, 1993.
[21] W. Mao, Modern Cryptography: Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall, 2004.
[22] U. Maurer, “Protocols for Secret Key Agreement by Public Discussion Based on Common Information,” Advances in Cryptology—Proc. 12th Ann. Int'l Cryptology Conf. (CRYPTO '92), pp. 461-470, Aug. 1993.
[23] A. Perrig, R. Canetti, J.D. Tygar, and D. Song, “The TESLA Broadcast Authentication Protocol,” RSA CryptoBytes, vol. 5, 2002.
[24] A. Perrig and D. Song, “Hash Visualization: A New Technique to Improve Real-World Security,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Cryptographic Techniques and E-Commerce (CrypTEC '99), pp. 131-138, July 1999.
[25] J.G. Proakis and M. Salehi, Communication Systems Engineering, second ed. Prentice Hall, 2002.
[26] K. Rasmussen, S. Čapkun, and M. Čagalj, “SecNav: Secure Broadcast Localization and Time Synchronization in Wireless Networks (extended abstract),” Proc. ACM/IEEE MobiCom, 2007.
[27] J.M. Berger, “A Note on an Error Detection Code for Asymmetric Channels,” Information and Control, vol. 4, Mar. 1961.
[28] F. Stajano and R. Anderson, “The Resurrecting Duckling: Security Issues for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” Proc. Seventh Int'l Workshop Security Protocols, 1999.
[29] F. Stajano, Security for Ubiquitous Computing. John Wiley & Sons, 2002.
[30] Securing Enterprise Wireless Networks, white paper, Symantec, 2003.
[31] D.L. Tao, R.P. Hartmann, and P.K. Lala, “An Efficient Class of Unidirectional Error Detecting/Correcting Codes,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 879-882, July 1988.
[32] M. Čagalj, S. Čapkun, and J.-P. Hubaux, “Key Agreement in Peer-to-Peer Wireless Networks,” Proc. IEEE, special issue on cryptography and security, vol. 94, no. 2, 2006.
[33] M. Čagalj, S. Čapkun, R. Rengaswamy, I. Tsigkogiannis, M. Srivastava, and J.-P. Hubaux, “Integrity (I) Codes: Message Integrity Protection and Authentication over Insecure Channels,” Proc. IEEE Symp. Security and Privacy, 2006.
[34] S. Čapkun and J.-P. Hubaux, “Secure Positioning in Wireless Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 24, no. 2, Feb. 2006.
[35] S. Čapkun, J.-P. Hubaux, and L. Buttyán, “Mobility Helps Peer-to-Peer Security,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, 2006.
[36] J.S. Warner and R.G. Johnston, “Think GPS Cargo Tracking = High Security? Think Again,” technical report, Los Alamos Nat'l Laboratory, 2003.
33 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool