This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Opportunistic Encryption: A Trade-Off between Security and Throughput in Wireless Networks
October-December 2007 (vol. 4 no. 4)
pp. 313-324
Wireless network security based on encryption is widely prevalent at this time. However, encryption techniques do not take into account wireless network characteristics such as random bit errors and fading. For example, we note that properties such as the avalanche effect that make a block cipher secure also cause them to be sensitive to bit errors. Therefore, there is a fundamental trade-off between security and throughput in encryption based wireless security. Further, if there is an adversary with a certain attack strength present in the wireless network, we see an additional twist to the security-throughput trade-off issue. In this paper, we proposed a framework called opportunistic encryption that uses channel opportunities (acceptable signal to noise ratio) to maximize the throughput subject to desired security constraints. To illustrate this framework and compare it with some current approaches this paper presents the following: (a) mathematical models to capture the secuity-throughput trade-off; (b) adversary models and their effects; (c) joint encryption and modulation (single and multi-rate) optimization; (d) the use of forward error correcting (FEC) codes to protect encrypted packets from bit errors; and (e) simulation results for Rijndael cipher. We observe that opportunistic encryption produces signficant improvement in the performance compared to traditional approaches.

[1] J.M. Reason and D.G. Messerschmitt, The Impact of Confidentiality on Quality of Service in Heterogeneous Voice over IP Networks. Springer, 2001.
[2] B. Sklar, Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications. Prentice Hall, 1988.
[3] W.C. Jakes, Microwave Mobile Communications. IEEE, 1974.
[4] A.J. Goldsmith and P.P. Varaiya, “Capacity of Fading Channels with Channel Side Information,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1986-1992, Nov. 1997.
[5] A.J. Goldsmith and S.-G. Chua, “Variable-Rate Variable-Power MQAM for Fading Channels,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 45, no. 10, pp. 1218-1230, Oct. 1997.
[6] S. Boyd and L. Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004.
[7] H.S. Wang and N. Moayeri, “Finite-State Markov Channel-A Useful Model for Radio Communication Channels,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 163-171, Feb. 1995.
[8] C.C. Tan and N.C. Beaulieu, “On First-Order Markov Modeling for the Rayleigh Fading Channel,” IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 2032-2040, Dec. 2000.
[9] L.I. Sennott, Stochastic Dynamic Programming and the Control of Queueing Systems. John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
[10] D.P. Bertsekas, Dynamic Programming and Optimal Control. Athena Scientific, 1995.
[11] B. Schneier, Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C, second ed. Wiley, 1996.
[12] Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 197, http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/fips/fips197 fips-197.pdf, Nov. 2001.
[13] J. Kam and G. Davida, “Structured Design of Substitution-Permutation Encryption Networks,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 747-753, 1979.
[14] W. Trappe and L. Washington, Introduction to Cryptography: With Coding Theory. Prentice Hall, 2002.
[15] W. Stallings, Cryptography and Network Security, pp. 27-30. Peaterson Education, 2003.
[16] J. Daemen and V. Rijmen, AES Proposal: Rijndael, http://csrc.nist.gov/CryptoToolkit/aes/rijndael Rijndael.pdf, 2006.
[17] J. Reason, “End-to-End Confidentiality for Continuous-Media Applications in Wireless Systems,” PhD dissertation, UC Berkeley, Dec. 2000.
[18] S. Stein, “Fading Channel Issues in Systems Engineering,” IEEE J.Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 68-89, Feb. 1987.
[19] D. Stintson, , Cryptography Theory and Practice, third ed. CRC Press, 2005.
[20] T.M. Cover and J.A. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory. Wiley Series in Telecomm., Wiley-Interscience, 1991.
[21] S. Lin and D.J. Costello Jr., Error Control Coding, second ed. Prentice Hall, 2004.
[22] L.H. Ozarow, S. Shamai, and A.D. Wyner, “Information Theoretic Considerations for Cellular Mobile Radio,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 359-378, May 1994.
[23] T.H. Cormen, C.E. Leiserson, R.L. Rivest, and C. Stein, Introduction to Algorithms, second ed. The MIT Press, 2003.
[24] S. Bapatla and R. Chandramouli, “Battery Power Optimized Encryption,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC '04), pp. 3802-3806, June 2004.
[25] Y. Xiao and M. Guizani, “Optimal Stream-Based Cipher Feedback Mode in Error Channel,” Proc. IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf. (Globecom '05), pp. 1660-1664, Nov. 2005.
[26] S. Coleri, M. Ergen, A. Puri, and A. Bahai, “Channel Estimation Techniques Based on Pilot Arrangement in OFDM Systems,” IEEE Trans. Broadcasting, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 223-229, Sept. 2002.
[27] Z. Shen, J.G. Andrews, and B.L. Evans, “Short Range Wireless Channel Prediction Using Local Information,” Proc. Conf. Record 37th Asilomar Conf. Signals, Systems, and Computers, vol. 1, pp. 1147-1151, Nov. 2003.
[28] I.C. Wong, A. Forenza, R.W. Heath, and B.L. Evans, “Long Range Channel Prediction for Adaptive OFDM Systems,” Proc. 38th Asilomar Conf. Signals, Systems and Computers, vol. 1, pp. 732-736, Nov. 2004.
[29] X. Wu and P.W. Moo, “Joint Image/Video Compression and Encryption via High-Order Conditional Entropy Coding of Wavelet Coefficients,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Multimedia Computing and Systems, vol. 2, pp. 908-912, June 1999.

Index Terms:
Security, integrity, and protection, Data encryption, Data Encryption, Wireless communication, Security and Privacy Protection, Optimization, Emerging technologies, Simulation, Algorithms, Cost/performance, Wireless systems, Dynamic programming
Citation:
Mohamed A. Haleem, Chetan N. Mathur, R. Chandramouli, K.P. Subbalakshmi, "Opportunistic Encryption: A Trade-Off between Security and Throughput in Wireless Networks," IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 313-324, Oct.-Dec. 2007, doi:10.1109/TDSC.2007.70214
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.