This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Securing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Certificateless Public Keys
October-December 2006 (vol. 3 no. 4)
pp. 386-399
This paper studies key management, a fundamental problem in securing mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). We present IKM, an ID-based key management scheme as a novel combination of ID-based and threshold cryptography. IKM is a certificateless solution in that public keys of mobile nodes are directly derivable from their known IDs plus some common information. It thus eliminates the need for certificate-based authenticated public-key distribution indispensable in conventional public-key management schemes. IKM features a novel construction method of ID-based public/private keys, which not only ensures high-level tolerance to node compromise, but also enables efficient network-wide key update via a single broadcast message. We also provide general guidelines about how to choose the secret-sharing parameters used with threshold cryptography to meet desirable levels of security and robustness. The advantages of IKM over conventional certificate-based solutions are justified through extensive simulations. Since most MANET security mechanisms thus far involve the heavy use of certificates, we believe that our findings open a new avenue towards more effective and efficient security design for MANETs.

[1] W. Lou and Y. Fang, “A Survey of Wireless Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Challenges and Available Solutions,” Ad Hoc Wireless Networking, X. Chen, X. Huang, and D.-Z. Du, eds., Kluwer Publisher, Mar. 2003.
[2] B. Neuman and T. Tso, “Kerberos: An Authentication Service for Computer Networks,” vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 33-38, Sept. 1994.
[3] L. Zhou and Z. J. Haas, “Securing Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Networks, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 24-30, 1999.
[4] J. Kong, P. Zerfos, H. Luo, S. Lu, and L. Zhang, “Providing Robust and Ubiquitous Security Support for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols, Nov. 2001.
[5] M. Narasimha, G. Tsudik, and J.H. Yi, “On the Unitility of Distributed Cryptography in P2P and Manets: The Case of Membership Control,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols, Nov. 2003.
[6] S. Yi and R. Kravets, “Moca: Mobile Certificate Authority for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Second Ann. PKI Research Workshop (PKI '03), Apr. 2003.
[7] M. Bechler, H.-J. Hof, D. Kraft, F. Pahlke, and L. Wolf, “A Cluster-Based Security Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2004.
[8] H. Luo, J. Kong, P. Zerfos, S. Lu, and L. Zhang, “URSA: Ubiquitous and Robust Access Control for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 12, no. 6, pp.1049-1063, Dec. 2004.
[9] A. Shamir, “Identity Based Cryptosystems and Signature Schemes,” Proc. CRYPTO'84, pp. 47-53, 1984.
[10] A. Khalili, J. Katz, and W. Arbaugh, “Toward Secure Key Distribution in Truly Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Workshop Security and Assurance in Ad Hoc Networks, Jan. 2003.
[11] H. Deng, A. Mukherjee, and D. Agrawal, “Threshold and Identity-Based Key Management and Authentication for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Information Technology: Coding and Computing (ITCC '04), Apr. 2004.
[12] N. Saxena, G. Tsudik, and J.H. Yi, “Identity-Based Access Control for Ad Hoc Groups,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Information Security and Cryptology, Dec. 2004.
[13] Y. Zhang, W. Liu, W. Lou, Y. Fang, and Y. Kwon, “AC-PKI: Anonymous and Certificateless Public-Key Infrastructure for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm, pp.3515-3519, May 2005,
[14] A. Shamir, “How to Share a Secret,” Comm. ACM, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 612-613, 1979.
[15] Y. Desmedt and Y. Frankel, “Threshold Cryptosystems,” Proc. CRYPTO '89, pp. 307-315, Aug. 1989.
[16] NIST, “Digital Hash Standard,” Federal Information Processing Standards PUBlication 180-1, Apr. 1995.
[17] Y. Zhang, W. Liu, and W. Lou, “Anonymous Communications in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE INFOCOM '05, pp. 1940-1951, Mar. 2005,
[18] K. Sanzgiri, D. LaFlamme, B. Dahill, B. Levine, C. Shields, and E. Belding-Royer, “Authenticated Routing for Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE J. Selected Areas Comm., vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 598-610, Mar. 2005.
[19] S. Capkun, L. Buttyan, and J.-P. Hubaux, “Self-Organized Public Key Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 52-64, Jan.-Mar. 2003.
[20] J.R. Douceur, “The Sybil Attack,” Proc. First Int'l Workshop Peer-to-Peer Systems (IPTPS '02), pp. 251-260, Mar. 2002.
[21] S. Jarecki, N. Saxena, and J.H. Yi, “An Attack on the Proactive RSA Signature Scheme in the URSA Ad Hoc Network Access Control Protocol,” Proc. Second ACM Workshop Security of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (SASN '04), Oct. 2004.
[22] R. Rivest, A. Shamir, and L. Adleman, “A Method for Obtaining Digital Signatures and Public Key Cryptosystems,” Comm. ACM, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 120-126, Feb. 1978.
[23] NIST, “Digital Signature Standard,” Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 186-2, Feb. 2000.
[24] M.G. Gouda and E. Jung, “Certificate Dispersal in Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. 24th IEEE Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '04), Mar. 2004.
[25] M. Bohio and A. Miri, “Efficient Identity-Based Security Schemes for Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols,” Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks J., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 309-317, 2004.
[26] Y. Zhang, W. Liu, W. Lou, and Y. Fang, “MASK: Anonymous On-Demand Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 5, no. 9, pp. 2376-2385, Sept. 2006.
[27] D. Boneh and M. Franklin, “Identify-Based Encryption from the Weil Pairing,” Proc. CRYPTO '01, pp. 213-229, 2001.
[28] D. Boneh and M. Franklin, “Identify-Based Encryption from the Weil Pairing,” SIAM J. Computing, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 586-615, Mar. 2003.
[29] P. Barreto, H. Kim, B. Bynn, and M. Scott, “Efficient Algorithms for Pairing-Based Cryptosystems,” Proc. CRYPTO '02, pp. 354-368, 2002.
[30] K. Barr and K. Asanovic, “Energy Aware Lossless Data Compression,” Proc. First Int'l Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services (MobiSys '03), pp. 231-244, May 2003,
[31] Y. Zhang, W. Lou, and Y. Fang, “SIP: A Secure Incentive Protocol Against Selfishness in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf., pp. 1679-1684, Mar. 2004.
[32] R. Canetti, R. Gennaro, S. Jarecki, H. Krawczyk, and T. Rabin, “Adaptive Security for Threshold Cryptosystems,” Proc. CRYPTO '99, pp. 98-115, Aug. 1999.
[33] S. Marti, T. Giuli, K. Lai, and M. Baker, “Mitigating Routing Misbehavior in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom, Aug. 2000.
[34] Y. Zhang and W. Lee, “Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiCom '00, Aug. 2000.
[35] A. Herzberg, S. Jarecki, H. Krawczyk, and M. Yung, “Proactive Secret Sharing or: How to Cope with Perpetual Leakage,” Proc. CRYPTO '95, pp. 339-352, 1995.
[36] M. Bellare and P. Rogaway, “Random Oracles are Practical: A Paradigm for Designing Efficient Protocols,” Proc. ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security, pp. 62-73, Nov. 1993.
[37] Y. Zhang, W. Liu, W. Lou, and Y. Fang, “Securing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Certificateless Public Keys,” technical report, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Eng., Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, Apr. 2006.
[38] A. Boldyreva, “Efficient Threshold Signatures, Multisignatures, and Blind Signatures Based on the Gap-Diffie-Hellman-Group Signature Scheme,” Proc. Sixth Int'l Workshop Theory and Practice in Public Key Cryptography (PKC '03), Jan. 2003.
[39] B. Bloom, “Space/Time Trade-Offs in Hash Coding with Allowable Errors,” Comm. ACM, vol. 13, no. 7, July 1970.
[40] D. Liu, P. Ning, and K. Sun, “Efficient Self-Healing Group Key Distribution with Revocation Capability,” Proc. ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security, Oct. 2003.
[41] C. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer, and S. Das, “Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing,” RFC 3561, July 2003.
[42] D. Johnson and D. Maltz, Dynamic Source Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, vol. 353, pp. 153-181. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996.
[43] J. Kong and X. Hong, “ANODR: Anonymous on Demand Routing with Untraceable Routes for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks,” Proc. ACM MobiHoc '03, Jun. 2003.
[44] T. Wong, C. Wang, and J. Wing, “Verifiable Secret Redistribution for Archive Systems,” Proc. First Int'l IEEE Security in Storage Workshop, Dec. 2002.
[45] X. Zeng, R. Bagrodia, and M. Gerla, “GloMoSim: A Library for Parallel Simulation of Large Scale Wireless Networks,” Proc. 12th Workshop Parallel and Distributed Simulations (PADS '98), pp. 154-161, May 1998.
[46] Shamus Software Ltd., Miracl library,, 2005.
[47] R. Rivest, M. Robshaw, R. Sidney, and L. Yin, “The RC6 Block Cipher,” v1.1, Aug. 1998,
[48] P. Barreto, B. Lynn, and M. Scott, “On the Selection of Pairing-Friendly Groups,” Selected Areas in Cryptography—SAC '03, pp.17-25, 2004.
[49] T. Kerins, W. Marnane, E. Popovici, and P. Barreto, “A Hardware Accelerator for Pairing Based Cryptosystems,” submittted preprint, 2005, .

Index Terms:
Mobile ad hoc networks, security, key management, ID-based cryptography, secret sharing.
Yanchao Zhang, Wei Liu, Wenjing Lou, Yuguang Fang, "Securing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Certificateless Public Keys," IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 386-399, Oct.-Dec. 2006, doi:10.1109/TDSC.2006.58
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.