This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Fingerprinting Relational Databases: Schemes and Specialties
January-March 2005 (vol. 2 no. 1)
pp. 34-45
In this paper, we present a technique for fingerprinting relational data by extending Agrawal et al.'s watermarking scheme. The primary new capability provided by our scheme is that, under reasonable assumptions, it can embed and detect arbitrary bit-string marks in relations. This capability, which is not provided by prior techniques, permits our scheme to be used as a fingerprinting scheme. We then present quantitative models of the robustness properties of our scheme. These models demonstrate that fingerprints embedded by our scheme are detectable and robust against a wide variety of attacks including collusion attacks.

[1] R. Agrawal, P.J. Haas, and J. Kiernan, “Watermarking Relational Data: Framework, Algorithms and Analysis,” The VLDB J., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 157-169, 2003.
[2] B. Bloom, “Space/Time Trade-Offs in Hash Coding with Allowable Errors,” Comm. ACM, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 422-426, 1970.
[3] D. Boneh and J. Shaw, “Collusion Secure Fingerprinting for Digital Data,” IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1897-1905, 1998.
[4] J. Brassil, S. Low, N. Maxemchuk, and L. O'Gorman, “Electronic Marking and Identification Techniques to Discourage Document Copying,” Proc. Conf. Computer Comm., 13th Ann. Joint Conf. IEEE Computer and Comm. Socs., Networking for Global Comm. (INFOCOM), pp. 1278-1287, 1994.
[5] I. Cox, J. Kilian, T. Leighton, and T. Shamoon, “Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia,” IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1673-1687, 1997.
[6] I. Cox, M. Miller, and J. Bloom, Digital Watermarking. Morgan Kaufmann, 2001.
[7] S. Crawer, N. Memon, B. Yeo, and M. Yeung, “Resolving Rightful Ownerships with Invisible Watermarking Techniques: Limitations, Attacks, and Implications,” IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 573-586, 1998.
[8] D. Glover, The Protection Of Computer Software, second ed. Cambridge Univ. 1992.
[9] D. Gross-Amblard, “Query-Preserving Watermarking of Relational Databases and XML Documents,” Proc. ACM Symp. Principles of Database Systems (PODS), pp. 191-201, 2003.
[10] H.-J. Guth and B. Pfitzmann, “Error- and Collusion-Secure Fingerprinting for Digital Data,” Proc. Conf. Information Hiding (IH '99), pp. 134-145, 2000.
[11] N. Johnson, Z. Duric, and S. Jajodia, Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking-Attacks and Countermeasures. Kluwer, 2000.
[12] Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking, S. Katzenbeisser and F. Petitcolas, eds. Artech House, 2000.
[13] Y. Li, V. Swarup, and S. Jajodia, “Constructing a Virtual Primary Key for Fingerprinting Relational Data,” Proc. ACM Workshop Digital Rights Management (DRM), pp. 133-141, 2003.
[14] Y. Li, V. Swarup, and S. Jajodia, “Robust Watermarking Schemes for Relational Data,” submitted for publication.
[15] T. Lindkvist, “Fingerprinting Digital Documents,” Linköping Studies in Science and Technology, thesis no. 798, 1999.
[16] S. Liu, S. Wang, R. Deng, and W. Shao, “A Block Oriented Fingerprinting Scheme in Relational Database,” Proc. Seventh Ann. Int'l Conf. Information Security and Cryptology (ICISC), 2004.
[17] B. Pfitzmann and A.-R. Sadeghi, “Coin-Based Anonymous Fingerprinting,” Advances in Cryptology— EUROCRYPT 1999, Int'l Conf. the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques (EUROCRYPT), pp. 150-164, 1999.
[18] B. Pfitzmann and M. Schunter, “Asymmetric Fingerprinting (Extended Abstract),” Proc. Advances in Cryptology— EUROCRYPT 1996, Int'l Conf. Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques (EUROCRYPT), pp. 84-95, 1996.
[19] B. Pfitzmann and M. Waidner, “Asymmetric Fingerprinting for Larger Collusions,” Proc. ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS), pp. 151-160, 1997.
[20] W. Roush, “Managing Antiterror Databases,” Technology Rev., p. 22, June 2003.
[21] R. Safavi-Naini and Y. Wang, “Traitor Tracing for Shortened and Corrupted Fingerprints,” Proc. ACM Workshop Digital Rights Management (DRM), pp. 81-100, 2002.
[22] B. Schneier, Applied Cryptography, second ed. John Wiley and Sons 1996.
[23] R. Sion, “Proving Ownership Over Categorical Data,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Data Eng. (ICDE), pp. 584-596, 2004.
[24] R. Sion, M. Atallah, and S. Prabhakar, “Rights Protection for Relational Data,” Proc. ACM SIGMOD Int'l Conf. Management of Data (SIGMOD), pp. 98-108, 2003.
[25] L. Vaas, “Putting a Stop to Database Piracy,” eWEEK, Enterprise News and Revs., Sept. 2003, http://www.eweek.com/print_article 0,3048,a=107965,00.asp .
[26] Y. Yacobi, “Improved Boneh-Shaw Content Fingerprinting,” Proc. Topics in Cryptology— CT-RSA 2001, the Cryptographer's Track at RSA Conf. (CT-RSA), pp. 378-391, 2001.
[27] K. Yoshioka, J. Shikata, and T. Matsumoto, “A Method of Database Fingerprinting,” Proc. 2004 Workshop Information Security Research, 2004.
[28] B. Zhu, J. Wu, and M. Kankanhalli, “Print Signatures for Document Authentication,” Proc. ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS), pp. 145-154, 2003.

Index Terms:
Fingerprint, relational database, robustness, collusion attack.
Citation:
Yingjiu Li, Vipin Swarup, Sushil Jajodia, "Fingerprinting Relational Databases: Schemes and Specialties," IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 34-45, Jan.-March 2005, doi:10.1109/TDSC.2005.12
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.