The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.01 - Jan. (2014 vol.36)
pp: 195-201
Shijian Lu , Inst. for Infocomm Res., A*STAR, Singapore, Singapore
Cheston Tan , Inst. for Infocomm Res., A*STAR, Singapore, Singapore
Joo-Hwee Lim , Inst. for Infocomm Res., A*STAR, Singapore, Singapore
ABSTRACT
This paper presents a visual saliency modeling technique that is efficient and tolerant to the image scale variation. Different from existing approaches that rely on a large number of filters or complicated learning processes, the proposed technique computes saliency from image histograms. Several two-dimensional image co-occurrence histograms are used, which encode not only "how many" (occurrence) but also "where and how" (co-occurrence) image pixels are composed into a visual image, hence capturing the "unusualness" of an object or image region that is often perceived by either global "uncommonness" (i.e., low occurrence frequency) or local "discontinuity" with respect to the surrounding (i.e., low co-occurrence frequency). The proposed technique has a number of advantageous characteristics. It is fast and very easy to implement. At the same time, it involves minimal parameter tuning, requires no training, and is robust to image scale variation. Experiments on the AIM dataset show that a superior shuffled AUC (sAUC) of 0.7221 is obtained, which is higher than the state-of-the-art sAUC of 0.7187.
INDEX TERMS
Computational modeling, Context modeling, Equations, Mathematical model, Histograms, Visualization, Image color analysis,image co-occurrence histogram, Saliency modeling, visual attention
CITATION
Shijian Lu, Cheston Tan, Joo-Hwee Lim, "Robust and Efficient Saliency Modeling from Image Co-Occurrence Histograms", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol.36, no. 1, pp. 195-201, Jan. 2014, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2013.158
REFERENCES
[1] J. Tsotsos, "Analyzing Vision at the Complexity Level," Behavioral and Brain Sciences, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 423-445, 1990.
[2] C.M. Moore and H. Egeth, "How Does Feature-Based Attention Affect Visual Processing?" J. Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1296-1310, 1998.
[3] A. Borji, D.N. Sihite, and L. Itti, "Quantitative Analysis of Human-Model Agreement in Visual Saliency Modeling: A Comparative Study," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 55-69, Jan. 2013.
[4] L. Itti and C. Koch, "Computational Modeling of Visual Attention," Nature Rev. Neuroscience, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 194-203, 2001.
[5] L. Itti, C. Koch, and E. Niebur, "A Model of Saliency-Based Visual Attention for Rapid Scene Analysis," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1254-1259, Nov. 1998.
[6] T. Kadir and M. Brady, "Saliency, Scale and Image Description," Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 83-105, 2001.
[7] D. Gao and N. Vasconcelos, "Bottom-Up Saliency Is a Discriminant Process," Proc. 11th IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 1-6, 2007.
[8] M.M. Cheng, G.X. Zhang, N. Mitra, X. Huang, and S.M. Hu, "Global Contrast Based Salient Region Detection," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 409-416, 2011.
[9] F. Perazzi, P. Krahenbuhl, Y. Pritch, and A. Hornung, "Saliency Filters: Contrast Based Filtering for Salient Region Detection," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 733-740, 2012.
[10] T. Judd, K. Ehinger, F. Durand, and A. Torralba, "Learning to Predict Where Humans Look," Proc. 12th IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 2106-2113, 2009.
[11] S. Goferman, L. Zelnik-Manor, and A. Tal, "Context-Aware Saliency Detection," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 2376-2383, 2010.
[12] A. Borji, D.N. Sihite, and L. Itti, "Probabilistic Learning of Task-Specific Visual Attention," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 470-477, 2012.
[13] L. Wang, J. Xue, N. Zheng, and G. Hua, "Automatic Salient Object Extraction with Contextual Cue," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 105-112, 2011.
[14] X. Hou and L. Zhang, "Saliency Detection: A Spectral Residual Approach," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 1-8, 2007.
[15] X. Hou, J. Harel, and C. Koch, "Image Signature: Highlighting Sparse Salient Regions," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 194-201, Jan. 2012.
[16] T. Liu, J. Sun, N. Zheng, X. Tang, and H. Shum, "Learning to Detect a Salient Object," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 1-8, 2007.
[17] T. Liu, Z. Yuan, J. Sun, J. Wang, N. Zheng, X. Tang, and H. Shum, "Learning to Detect a Salient Object," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 353-367, Feb. 2011.
[18] J. Feng, Y. Wei, L. Tao, C. Zhang, and J. Sun, "Salient Object Detection by Composition," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 1028-1035, 2011.
[19] R. Achanta, S. Hemami, F. Estrada, and S. Susstrunk, "Frequency-Tuned Salient Region Detection," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 1597-1604, 2009.
[20] J. Harel, C. Koch, and P. Perona, "Graph-Based Visual Saliency," Proc. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pp. 545-552, 2007.
[21] H.J. Seo and P. Milanfar, "Static and Space-Time Visual Saliency Detection by Self-Resemblance," J. Vision, vol. 12, no. 15, pp. 1-15, 2009.
[22] L. Marchesotti, C. Cifarelli, and G. Csurka, "A Framework for Visual Saliency Detection with Applications to Image Thumbnailing," Proc. 12th IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 2232-2239, 2009.
[23] L. Duan, C. Wu, J. Miao, L. Qing, and Y. Fu, "Visual Saliency Detection by Spatially Weighted Dissimilarity," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 473-480, 2011.
[24] G. Sharma1, F. Jurie, and C. Schmid, "Discriminative Spatial Saliency for Image Classification," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 3506-3513, 2012.
[25] D. Chen and H. Chu, "Scale-Invariant Amplitude Spectrum Modulation for Visual Saliency Detection," IEEE Trans. Neural Networks and Learning Systems, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 1206-1214, Aug. 2012.
[26] A. Garcia-Diaz, X.R. Fdez-Vidal, X.M. Pardo, and R. Dosil, "Saliency from Hierarchical Adaptation through Decorrelation and Variance Normalization," Image and Vision Computing, vol. 30, pp. 51-64, 2012.
[27] N. Bruce and J. Tsotsos, "Saliency Based on Information Maximization," Proc. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pp. 155-162, 2006.
[28] N. Bruce and J. Tsotsos, "Saliency, Attention, and Visual Search: An Information Theoretic Approach," J. Vision, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1-24, 2009.
[29] N. Bruce, "Image Analysis through Local Information Measures," Proc. Int'l Conf. Pattern Recognition, pp. 616-619, 2004.
[30] L. Zhang, M.H. Tong, T.K. Marks, and G.W. Cottrell, "SUN: A Bayesian Framework for Saliency Using Natural Statistics," J. Vision, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 1-20, 2008.
[31] P. Wang, J. Wang, G. Zeng, J. Feng, H. Zha, and S. Li, "Salient Object Detection for Searched Web Images via Global Saliency," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 3194-3201, 2012.
[32] W. Kienzle, F.A. Wichmann, B. Scholkopf, and M.O. Franz, "A Nonparametric Approach to Bottom Up Visual Saliency," Proc. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pp. 689-696, 2007.
[33] Q. Zhao and C. Koch, "Learning a Saliency Map Using Fixated Locations in Natural Scenes," J. Vision, vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 1-15, 2011.
[34] Q. Zhao and C. Koch, "Learning Visual Saliency by Combining Feature Maps in a Nonlinear Manner Using AdaBoost," J. Vision, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1-15, 2012.
[35] A. Borji and L. Itti, "Exploiting Local and Global Patch Rarities for Saliency Detection," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 478-485, 2012.
[36] J. Huang, S.R. Kumar, M. Mitra, W.J. Zhu, and R. Zabih, "Image Indexing Using Color Correlograms," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 762-768, 1997.
[37] A. Rao, R.K. Srihari, and Z. Zhang, "Spatial Color Histograms for Content-Based Image Retrieval," Proc. 11th IEEE Int'l Conf. Tools with Artificial Intelligence, pp. 183-186, 1999.
[38] P. Chang and J. Krumm, "Object Recognition with Color Cooccurrence Histograms," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 498-504, 1999.
[39] S. Lu and J.H. Lim, "Saliency Modeling from Image Histograms," Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 321-332, 2012.
[40] B. Tatler, R. Baddeley, and I. Gilchrist, "Visual Correlates of Fixation Selection: Effects of Scale and Time," Vision Research, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 643-659, 2005.
45 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool