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Issue No.08 - Aug. (2013 vol.35)
pp: 1902-1914
Ian J. Goodfellow , Université de Montréal, Montréal
Aaron Courville , Université de Montréal, Montréal
Yoshua Bengio , Université de Montréal, Montréal
ABSTRACT
We describe the use of two spike-and-slab models for modeling real-valued data, with an emphasis on their applications to object recognition. The first model, which we call spike-and-slab sparse coding (S3C), is a preexisting model for which we introduce a faster approximate inference algorithm. We introduce a deep variant of S3C, which we call the partially directed deep Boltzmann machine (PD-DBM) and extend our S3C inference algorithm for use on this model. We describe learning procedures for each. We demonstrate that our inference procedure for S3C enables scaling the model to unprecedented large problem sizes, and demonstrate that using S3C as a feature extractor results in very good object recognition performance, particularly when the number of labeled examples is low. We show that the PD-DBM generates better samples than its shallow counterpart, and that unlike DBMs or DBNs, the PD-DBM may be trained successfully without greedy layerwise training.
INDEX TERMS
Encoding, Feature extraction, Data models, Training, Approximation methods, Vectors, Slabs, computer vision, Neural nets, pattern recognition
CITATION
Ian J. Goodfellow, Aaron Courville, Yoshua Bengio, "Scaling Up Spike-and-Slab Models for Unsupervised Feature Learning", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol.35, no. 8, pp. 1902-1914, Aug. 2013, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2012.273
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