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Local Evidence Aggregation for Regression-Based Facial Point Detection
May 2013 (vol. 35 no. 5)
pp. 1149-1163
B. Martinez, Dept. of Comput., Imperial Coll. London, London, UK
M. F. Valstar, Mixed Reality Lab., Univ. of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
X. Binefa, Dept. of Inf. Technol. & Telecommun., Univ. Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain
M. Pantic, Dept. of Comput., Imperial Coll. London, London, UK
We propose a new algorithm to detect facial points in frontal and near-frontal face images. It combines a regression-based approach with a probabilistic graphical model-based face shape model that restricts the search to anthropomorphically consistent regions. While most regression-based approaches perform a sequential approximation of the target location, our algorithm detects the target location by aggregating the estimates obtained from stochastically selected local appearance information into a single robust prediction. The underlying assumption is that by aggregating the different estimates, their errors will cancel out as long as the regressor inputs are uncorrelated. Once this new perspective is adopted, the problem is reformulated as how to optimally select the test locations over which the regressors are evaluated. We propose to extend the regression-based model to provide a quality measure of each prediction, and use the shape model to restrict and correct the sampling region. Our approach combines the low computational cost typical of regression-based approaches with the robustness of exhaustive-search approaches. The proposed algorithm was tested on over 7,500 images from five databases. Results showed significant improvement over the current state of the art.
Index Terms:
shape recognition,face recognition,object detection,regression analysis,exhaustive-search approach,local evidence aggregation,regression-based approach,facial point detection,near-frontal face image,probabilistic graphical model,face shape model,sequential approximation,target location detection,Shape,Face,Prediction algorithms,Training,Vectors,Support vector machines,Feature extraction,support vector regression,Facial point detection,object detection,probabilistic graphical networks
B. Martinez, M. F. Valstar, X. Binefa, M. Pantic, "Local Evidence Aggregation for Regression-Based Facial Point Detection," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1149-1163, May 2013, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2012.205
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