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Inverse Rendering of Faces with a 3D Morphable Model
May 2013 (vol. 35 no. 5)
pp. 1080-1093
O. Aldrian, Dept. of Comput. Sci., Univ. of York, York, UK
W. A. P. Smith, Dept. of Comput. Sci., Univ. of York, York, UK
In this paper, we present a complete framework to inverse render faces with a 3D Morphable Model (3DMM). By decomposing the image formation process into geometric and photometric parts, we are able to state the problem as a multilinear system which can be solved accurately and efficiently. As we treat each contribution as independent, the objective function is convex in the parameters and a global solution is guaranteed. We start by recovering 3D shape using a novel algorithm which incorporates generalization error of the model obtained from empirical measurements. We then describe two methods to recover facial texture, diffuse lighting, specular reflectance, and camera properties from a single image. The methods make increasingly weak assumptions and can be solved in a linear fashion. We evaluate our findings on a publicly available database, where we are able to outperform an existing state-of-the-art algorithm. We demonstrate the usability of the recovered parameters in a recognition experiment conducted on the CMU-PIE database.
Index Terms:
visual databases,face recognition,image texture,rendering (computer graphics),CMU-PIE database,inverse render faces,3D morphable model,3DMM,image formation process,geometric parts,photometric parts,multilinear system,objective function,3D shape recovery,global solution,generalization error,empirical measurements,facial texture recovery,diffuse lighting,specular reflectance,camera properties,Lighting,Shape,Harmonic analysis,Solid modeling,Cameras,Rendering (computer graphics),Vectors,texture and illumination analysis,Inverse rendering,face shape
Citation:
O. Aldrian, W. A. P. Smith, "Inverse Rendering of Faces with a 3D Morphable Model," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1080-1093, May 2013, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2012.206
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