The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.09 - September (2011 vol.33)
pp: 1699-1712
Brian Williams , Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena
Georg Klein , Microsoft Corporation, Seattle
Ian Reid , University of Oxford, Oxford
ABSTRACT
Monocular SLAM has the potential to turn inexpensive cameras into powerful pose sensors for applications such as robotics and augmented reality. We present a relocalization module for such systems which solves some of the problems encountered by previous monocular SLAM systems—tracking failure, map merging, and loop closure detection. This module extends recent advances in keypoint recognition to determine the camera pose relative to the landmarks within a single frame time of 33 ms. We first show how this module can be used to improve the robustness of these systems. Blur, sudden motion, and occlusion can all cause tracking to fail, leading to a corrupted map. Using the relocalization module, the system can automatically detect and recover from tracking failure while preserving map integrity. Extensive tests show that the system can then reliably generate maps for long sequences even in the presence of frequent tracking failure. We then show that the relocalization module can be used to recognize overlap in maps, i.e., when the camera has returned to a previously mapped area. Having established an overlap, we determine the relative pose of the maps using trajectory alignment so that independent maps can be merged and loop closure events can be recognized. The system combining all of these abilities is able to map larger environments and for significantly longer periods than previous systems.
INDEX TERMS
Tracking, 3D/stereo scene analysis, autonomous vehicles.
CITATION
Brian Williams, Georg Klein, Ian Reid, "Automatic Relocalization and Loop Closing for Real-Time Monocular SLAM", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol.33, no. 9, pp. 1699-1712, September 2011, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2011.41
REFERENCES
[1] A. Davison, I. Reid, N. Molton, and O. Stasse, "MonoSLAM: Real-Time Single Camera SLAM," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1052-1067, June 2007.
[2] V. Lepetit and P. Fua, "Keypoint Recognition Using Randomized Trees," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1465-1479, Sept. 2006.
[3] F. Dellaert, D. Fox, W. Burgard, and S. Thrun, "Monte Carlo Localization for Mobile Robots," Proc. Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation, 1999.
[4] J. Neira, J.D. Tardós, and J.A. Castellanos, "Linear Time Vehicle Relocation in SLAM," Proc. Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation, 2003.
[5] L. Clemente, A. Davison, I. Reid, J. Neira, and J.D. Tardós, "Mapping Large Loops with a Single Hand-Held Camera," Proc. Robotics: Science and Systems Conf., 2007.
[6] B. Williams, M. Cummins, J. Neira, P. Newman, I. Reid, and J. Tardós, "A Comparison of Loop Closing Techniques in Monocular SLAM," Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 1188-1197, 2009.
[7] G. Reitmayr and T. Drummond, "Going Out: Robust Model-Based Tracking for Outdoor Augmented Reality," Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Mixed and Augmented Reality, 2006.
[8] G. Klein and D. Murray, "Improving the Agility of Keyframe-Based SLAM," Proc. 10th European Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 802-815, 2008.
[9] M. Cummins and P. Newman, "FAB-MAP: Probabilistic Localization and Mapping in the Space of Appearance," Int'l J. Robotics Research, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 647-665, 2008.
[10] E. Eade and T. Drummond, "Unified Loop Closing and Recovery for Real Time Monocular Slam," Proc. British Machine Vision Conf., pp. 53-62, 2007.
[11] B. Williams, P. Smith, and I. Reid, "Automatic Relocalisation for a Single-Camera Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping System," Proc. Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation, 2007.
[12] B. Williams, G. Klein, and I. Reid, "Real-Time SLAM Relocalisation," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, 2007.
[13] B. Williams, M. Cummins, J. Neira, P. Newman, I. Reid, and J.D. Tardós, "An Image-to-Map Loop Closing Method for Monocular SLAM," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2008.
[14] J. Neira and J.D. Tardós, "Data Association in Stochastic Mapping Using the Joint Compatibility Test," IEEE Trans. Robotics and Automation, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 890-897, Dec. 2001.
[15] J.M.M. Montiel, J. Civera, and A.J. Davison, "Unified Inverse Depth Parametrization for Monocular SLAM," Proc. Robotics: Science and Systems, 2006.
[16] M.A. Fischler and R.C. Bolles, "Random Sample Consensus: A Paradigm for Model Fitting with Applications to Image Analysis and Automated Cartography," Comm. ACM, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 381-395, 1981.
[17] M. Ozuysal, V. Lepetit, F. Fleuret, and P. Fua, "Feature Harvesting for Tracking-by-Detection," Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 592-605, 2006.
[18] Y. Amit and D. Geman, "Shape Quantization and Recognition with Randomized Trees," Neural Computation, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1545-1588, 1997.
[19] M. Ozuysal, P. Fua, and V. Lepetit, "Fast Keypoint Recognition in Ten Lines of Code," Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2007.
[20] D.G. Lowe, "Distinctive Image Features from Scale-Invariant Keypoints," Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 91-110, 2004.
[21] E. Rosten and T. Drummond, "Machine Learning for High-Speed Corner Detection," Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 430-443, 2006.
[22] M. Calonder, V. Lepetit, and P. Fua, "Keypoint Signatures for Fast Learning and Recognition," Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision, 2008.
27 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool