This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Shadow Removal Using Intensity Surfaces and Texture Anchor Points
June 2011 (vol. 33 no. 6)
pp. 1202-1216
Eli Arbel, University of Haifa, Haifa
Hagit Hel-Or, University of Haifa, Haifa
Removal of shadows from a single image is a challenging problem. Producing a high-quality shadow-free image which is indistinguishable from a reproduction of a true shadow-free scene is even more difficult. Shadows in images are typically affected by several phenomena in the scene, including physical phenomena such as lighting conditions, type and behavior of shadowed surfaces, occluding objects, etc. Additionally, shadow regions may undergo postacquisition image processing transformations, e.g., contrast enhancement, which may introduce noticeable artifacts in the shadow-free images. We argue that the assumptions introduced in most studies arise from the complexity of the problem of shadow removal from a single image and limit the class of shadow images which can be handled by these methods. The purpose of this paper is twofold: First, it provides a comprehensive survey of the problems and challenges which may occur when removing shadows from a single image. In the second part of the paper, we present our framework for shadow removal, in which we attempt to overcome some of the fundamental problems described in the first part of the paper. Experimental results demonstrating the capabilities of our algorithm are presented.

[1] H. Barrow and J. Tenenbaum, “Recovering Intrinsic Scene Characteristics from Images,” Computer Vision Systems, A. Hanson and E. Riseman, eds., Academic Press, 1978.
[2] J.B. Keller, “Geometrical Theory of Diffraction,” J. Optical Soc. Am., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 116-130, 1962.
[3] H. Primack, H. Schanz, U. Smilansky, and I. Ussishkin, “Penumbra Diffraction in the Quantization of Dispersing Billiards,” Physical Rev. Letters, vol. 76, pp. 1615-1618, Mar. 1996.
[4] G.D. Finlayson, S.D. Hordley, and M.S. Drew, “Removing Shadows from Images,” Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision, vol. IV, pp. 823-836, 2002.
[5] T.-P. Wu and C.-K. Tang, “A Bayesian Approach for Shadow Extraction from a Single Image,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 480-487, 2005.
[6] L. Xu, F. Qi, and R. Jiang, “Shadow Removal from a Single Image,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Intelligent Systems Design and Applications, pp. 1049-1054, 2006.
[7] P. Mamassian, D.C. Knill, and D. Kersten, “The Perception of Cast Shadows,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 288-295, 1998.
[8] A. Mohan, J. Tumblin, and P. Choudhury, “Editing Soft Shadows in a Digital Photograph,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 23-31, Mar./Apr. 2007.
[9] E. Arbel and H. Hel-Or, “Texture-Preserving Shadow Removal in Color Images Containing Curved Surfaces,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Comp. Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 1-8, 2007.
[10] Y. Weiss, “Deriving Intrinsic Images from Image Sequences,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 68-75, 2001.
[11] Y.-Y. Chuang, D.B. Goldman, B. Curless, D.H. Salesin, and R. Szeliski, “Shadow Matting and Compositing,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 494-500, 2003.
[12] A. Prati, I. Mikic, M. Trivedi, and R. Cucchiara, “Detecting Moving Shadows: Algorithms and Evaluation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 918-923, July 2003.
[13] G. Finlayson, C. Fredembach, and M. Drew, “Detecting Illumination in Images,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, 2007.
[14] A. Leone and C. Distante, “Shadow Detection for Moving Objects Based on Texture Analysis,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1222-1233, 2007.
[15] A. Bevilacqua, “Effective Shadow Detection in Traffic Monitoring Applications,” Winter School of Computer Graphics, vol. 11, pp. 57-64, 2003.
[16] P. Rosin and T. Ellis, “Image Difference Threshold Strategies and Shadow Detection,” Proc. British Machine Vision Conf., pp. 347-356, 1995.
[17] A.W. So, K.-Y.K. Wong, R.H.Y. Chung, and F.Y.L. Chin, “Shadow Detection for Vehicles by Locating the Object-Shadow Boundary,” Proc. IASTED Conf. Signal and Image Processing, pp. 315-319, 2005.
[18] D. Grest, J.-M. Frahm, and R. Koch, “A Color Similarity Measure for Robust Shadow Removal in Real Time,” Proc. Vision, Modeling, and Visualization Conf., pp. 253-260, 2003.
[19] E. Salvador, A. Cavallaro, and T. Ebrahimi, “Cast Shadow Segmentation Using Invariant Color Features,” Computer Vision and Image Understanding, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 238-259, 2004.
[20] M.D. Levine and J. Bhattacharyya, “Removing Shadows,” Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 251-265, 2005.
[21] K. Barnard and G.D. Finlayson, “Shadow Identification Using Colour Ratios,” Proc. IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conf.: Color Science, Systems and Applications, pp. 97-101, 2000.
[22] C. Fredembach and G. Finlayson, “Hamiltonian Path Based Shadow Removal,” Proc. British Machine Vision Conf., pp. 970-980, 2005.
[23] G. Finlayson, S. Hordley, C. Lu, and M. Drew, “On the Removal of Shadows from Images,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 59-68, Jan. 2006.
[24] G. Finlayson, M. Drew, and C. Lu, “Intrinsic Images by Entropy Minimization,” Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 582-595, 2004.
[25] Z. Figov, Y. Tal, and M. Koppel, “Detecting and Removing Shadows,” Proc. IASTED Int'l Conf. Computer Graphics and Imaging, 2004.
[26] C. Fredembach and G. Finlayson, “Simple Shadow Removal,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Pattern Recognition, pp. 832-835, 2006.
[27] M. Baba, M. Mukunoki, and N. Asada, “Shadow Removal from a Real Image Based on Shadow Density,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 2004.
[28] M. Baba and N. Asada, “Shadow Removal from a Real Picture,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, 2003.
[29] G. Finlayson, S. Hordley, and M. Drew, “Removing Shadows from Images Using Retinex,” Proc. IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conf.: Color Science, Systems and Applications, pp. 73-79, 2002.
[30] T.-P. Wu, C.-K. Tang, M.S. Brown, and H.-Y. Shum, “Natural Shadow Matting,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 26, no. 2, p. 8, 2007.
[31] X. Gu, D. Yu, and L. Zhang, “Image Shadow Removal Using Pulse Coupled Neural Network,” IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 692-698, May 2005.
[32] Z. Du, X. Qin, H. Lin, and H. Bao, “Shadow Removal in Gradient Domain,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Image Analysis and Recognition, pp. 107-115, 2005.
[33] D. Terzopoulos, J. Platt, A. Barr, and K. Fleischer, “Elastically Deformable Models,” Proc. Ann. Conf. Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques, pp. 205-214, 1987.
[34] C. Lürig, L. Kobbelt, and T. Ertl, “Hierarchical Solutions for the Deformable Surface Problem in Visualization,” Graphical Models, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 2-18, 2000.
[35] L.D. Cohen and I. Cohen, “Finite-Element Methods for Active Contour Models and Balloons for 2-D and 3-D Images,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 15, no. 11, pp. 1131-1147, Nov. 1993.
[36] D. Terzopoulos, A. Witkin, and M. Kass, “Symmetry-Seeking Models for 3D Object Recognition,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 211-221, Oct. 1987.
[37] A.K. Jain, Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1989.
[38] J. Lewis, “Fast Normalized Cross-Correlation,” Proc. Conf. Vision Interface, pp. 120-123, 1995.
[39] E. Salvador, A. Cavallaro, and T. Ebrahimi, “Shadow Identification and Classification Using Invariant Color Models,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, pp. 1545-1548, 2001.
[40] C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, “Support-Vector Networks,” Machine Learning, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 273-297, 1995.
[41] A. Levin and Y. Weiss, “User Assisted Separation of Reflections from a Single Image Using a Sparsity Prior,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1647-1654, Sept. 2007.
[42] S.Z. Li, Markov Random Field Modeling in Image Analysis. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc., 2001.

Index Terms:
Shadow removal, shading, color, texture, shadow detection, region growing, enhancement.
Citation:
Eli Arbel, Hagit Hel-Or, "Shadow Removal Using Intensity Surfaces and Texture Anchor Points," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1202-1216, June 2011, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2010.157
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.