The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.08 - August (2010 vol.32)
pp: 1347-1361
Reza Farrahi Moghaddam , École de Technologie Supérieure, Montréal
Mohamed Cheriet , École de Technologie Supérieure, Montréal
The goal of this paper is to correct bleed-through in degraded documents using a variational approach. The variational model is adapted using an estimated background according to the availability of the verso side of the document image. Furthermore, for the latter case, a more advanced model based on a global control, the flow field, is introduced. The solution of each resulting model is obtained using wavelet shrinkage or a time-stepping scheme, depending on the complexity and nonlinearity of the models. When both sides of the document are available, the proposed model uses the reverse diffusion process for the enhancement of double-sided document images. The results of experiments with real and synthesized samples are promising. The proposed model, which is robust with respect to noise and complex background, can also be applied to other fields of image processing.
Variational framework, PDE-based image processing, document enhancement, bleed-through effect.
Reza Farrahi Moghaddam, Mohamed Cheriet, "A Variational Approach to Degraded Document Enhancement", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol.32, no. 8, pp. 1347-1361, August 2010, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2009.141
[1] T. Kanungo, "Document Degradation Models and a Methodology for Degradation Model Validation," PhD dissertation, Univ. of Washington, 1996.
[2] Google, Book Search Dataset, fifth ed. 2007.
[3] M. Cheriet and R. Farrahi Moghaddam, "Degradation Modeling and Enhancement of Low Quality Documents," Proc. Int'l Workshop Signal Processing and Its Applications, 2008.
[4] S.-W. Huang, D.-L. Way, and Z.-C. Shih, "Physical-Based Model of Ink Diffusion in Chinese Ink Paintings," J. WSCG, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 520-527, 2003.
[5] S. Mei-jun, S. Ji-zhou, and Y. Bin, "Physical Modeling of 'Xuan' Paper in the Simulation of Chinese Ink-Wash Drawing," Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer Graphics, Imaging and Vision, S. Ji-zhou, ed., pp. 317-322, 2005.
[6] W. Xiujin, J. Jingshan, and S. Jizhou, "Graphical Simulator for Chinese Ink-Wash Drawing," Trans. Tianjin Univ., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-7, 2002.
[7] S. Yongxin, S. Jizhou, and Z. Haijiang, "Graphical Simulation Algorithm for Chinese Ink Wash Drawing by Particle System (Chinese)," J. Computer-Aided Design and Computer Graphics, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 667-672, 2003.
[8] Q. Zhang, Y. Sato, J.-Y. Takahashi, K. Muraoka, and N. Chiba, "Simple Cellular Automaton-Based Simulation of Ink Behaviour and Its Application to Suibokuga-Like 3D Rendering of Trees," J. Visualization and Computer Animation, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 27-37, 1999.
[9] L. Chen, J. Zhu, M. Young, and R. Susfalk, "Modeling Polyacrylamide Transport in Water Delivery Canals," Proc. ASA-CSSA-SSSA Int'l Ann. Meetings, pp. 294-296, Nov. 2006.
[10] K. Roth, "Scaling of Water Flow through Porous Media and Soils," European J. Soil Science, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 125-130, 2008.
[11] H.H. Vaziri, Y. Xiao, R. Islam, and A. Nouri, "Numerical Modeling of Seepage Induced Sand Production in Oil and Gas Reservoirs," J. Petroleum Science and Eng., vol. 36, nos. 1/2, pp. 71-86, Oct. 2002.
[12] G. Leedham, S. Varma, A. Patankar, and V. Govindaraju, "Separating Text and Background in Degraded Document Images—A Comparison of Global Thresholding Techniques for Multi-Stage Thresholding," Proc. Int'l Workshop Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition, pp. 244-249, Aug. 2002.
[13] K. Franke and M. Köppen, "A Computer-Based System to Support Forensic Studies on Handwritten Documents," Int'l J. Document Analysis and Recognition, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 218-231, May 2001.
[14] K. Franke and S. Rose, "Ink-Deposition Analysis Using Temporal (Online) Data," Proc. Int'l Workshop Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition, 2006.
[15] H. Nishida and T. Suzuki, "Correcting Show-Through Effects on Document Images by Multiscale Analysis," Proc. Int'l Conf. Pattern Recognition, T. Suzuki, ed., vol. 3, pp. 65-68, 2002.
[16] H.-S. Don, "A Noise Attribute Thresholding Method for Document Image Binarization," Int'l J. Document Analysis and Recognition, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 131-138, Dec. 2001.
[17] J.M.M. da Silva, R.D. Lins, F.M.J. Martins, and R. Wachenchauzer, "A New and Efficient Algorithm to Binarize Document Images Removing Back-to-Front Interference," J. Universal Computer Science, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 299-313, Jan. 2008.
[18] G. Sharma, "Show-Through Cancellation in Scans of Duplex Printed Documents," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 736-754, May 2001.
[19] K.T. Knox, "Show-Through Correction for Two-Sided Documents," United States Patent 5646744, July 1997.
[20] C.L. Tan, R. Cao, and P. Shen, "Restoration of Archival Documents Using a Wavelet Technique," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1399-1404, Oct. 2002.
[21] C.L. Tan, R. Cao, P. Shen, Q. Wang, J. Chee, and J. Chang, "Removal of Interfering Strokes in Double-Sided Document Images," Proc. IEEE Workshop Applications of Computer Vision, pp. 16-21, 2000.
[22] E. Dubois and A. Pathak, "Reduction of Bleed-Through in Scanned Manuscript Documents," Proc. Image Processing, Image Quality, Image Capture Systems Conf., pp. 177-180, Apr. 2001.
[23] E. Dubois and P. Dano, "Joint Compression and Restoration of Documents with Bleed-Through," Proc. IS&T Archiving '05, pp. 170-174, Apr. 2005.
[24] I. Gerace, F. Cricco, and A. Tonazzini, "An Extended Maximum Likelihood Approach for the Robust Blind Separation of Autocorrelated Images from Noisy Mixtures," Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Independent Component Analysis and Blind Signal Separation, pp. 954-961, Springer, 2004.
[25] E. Salerno, A. Tonazzini, and L. Bedini, "Digital Image Analysis to Enhance Underwritten Text in the Archimedes Palimpsest," Int'l J. Document Analysis and Recognition, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 79-87, Apr. 2007.
[26] A. Tonazzini, E. Salerno, and L. Bedini, "Fast Correction of Bleed-Through Distortion in Grayscale Documents by a Blind Source Separation Technique," Int'l J. Document Analysis and Recognition, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 17-25, June 2007.
[27] B. Ophir and D. Malah, "Show-Through Cancellation in Scanned Images Using Blind Source Separation Techniques," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Image Processing, D. Malah, ed., vol. 3, pp. III-233-III-236, 2007.
[28] R. Farrahi Moghaddam and M. Cheriet, "EFDM: Restoration of Single-Sided Low-Quality Document Images," Proc. Int'l Conf. Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition, pp. 204-209, Aug. 2008.
[29] I. Selesnick, R. Baraniuk, and N. Kingsbury, "The Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 123-151, Nov. 2005.
[30] K. Berkner, M.J. Gormish, and E.L. Schwartz, "Multiscale Sharpening and Smoothing in Besov Spaces with Applications to Image Enhancement," Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 2-31, July 2001.
[31] A. Chambolle, R. De Vore, N.-Y. Lee, and B. Lucier, "Nonlinear Wavelet Image Processing: Variational Problems, Compression, and Noise Removal through Wavelet Shrinkage," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 319-335, Mar. 1998.
[32] A. Chambolle and B. Lucier, "Interpreting Translation Invariant Wavelet Shrinkage as a New Image Smoothing Scale Space," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 993-1000, July 2001.
[33] H. Triebel, Theory of Function Spaces II, vol. 84. Birkhauser Verlag, 1992.
[34] Y. Meyer, Wavelets and Operators, vol. 37. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995.
[35] W. Rudin, Real and Complex Analysis. McGraw-Hill, 1986.
[36] D.L. Donoho and J.M. Johnstone, "Ideal Spatial Adaptation by Wavelet Shrinkage," Biometrika, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 425-455, Sept. 1994.
[37] D. Lorenz, "Variational Denoising in Besov Spaces and Interpolation of Hard and Soft Wavelet Shrinkage," technical report, Zentrum für Technomathematik, Univ. Bremen, preprints/ origlorenz2003softhard.pdf, 2004.
[38] P. Mràzek, J. Weickert, and G. Steidl, "Correspondences between Wavelet Shrinkage and Nonlinear Diffusion," Lecture Notes in Computer Science: Scale Space Methods in Computer Vision, pp. 101-116, Springer, 2003.
[39] J. Monteil and A. Beghdadi, "A New Interpretation and Improvement of the Nonlinear Anisotropic Diffusion for Image Enhancement," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 940-946, Sept. 1999.
[40] L.I. Rudin, S. Osher, and E. Fatemi, "Nonlinear Total Variation Based Noise Removal Algorithms," Physica D, vol. 60, nos. 1-4, pp. 259-268, 1992.
[41] F. Voci, S. Eiho, N. Sugimoto, and H. Sekibuchi, "Estimating the Gradient in the Perona-Malik Equation," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 39-65, May 2004.
[42] S. Mukhopadhyay and B. Chanda, "Multiscale Morphological Segmentation of Gray-Scale Images," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 533-549, May 2003.
[43] J.A. Dobrosotskaya and A.L. Bertozzi, "A Wavelet-Laplace Variational Technique for Image Deconvolution and Inpainting," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 657-663, May 2008.
[44] MATLAB Version 7.5.0. Mathworks, Inc.
[45] R. Deriche and O. Faugeras, "Les EDP en traitement Des Images et Vision Par Ordinateur," Technical Report 2697, INRIA, 1996.
[46] R. Farrahi Moghaddam and M. Cheriet, "Low Quality Document Image Modeling and Enhancement," Int'l J. Document Analysis and Recognition, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 183-201, 2009.
[47] E. Oja and Z. Yuan, "The FastICA Algorithm Revisited: Convergence Analysis," IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1370-1381, Nov. 2006.
[48] A. Cichocki, S. Amari, K. Siwek, T. Tanaka, A.H. Phan, and R. Zdunek, "ICALAB-MATLAB Toolbox Ver. 3 for Signal Processing," 2007.
[49] O. Trier and A. Jain, "Goal-Directed Evaluation of Binarization Methods," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 1191-1201, Dec. 1995.
[50] X. Ye, M. Cheriet, and C. Suen, "Stroke-Model-Based Character Extraction from Gray-Level Document Images," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1152-1161, Aug. 2001.
[51] A. Tonazzini, E. Salerno, M. Mochi, and L. Bedini, "Blind Source Separation Techniques for Detecting Hidden Texts and Textures in Document Images," Image Analysis and Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 241-248, 2004.
[52] P. Perona and J. Malik, "Scale-Space and Edge Detection Using Anisotropic Diffusion," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 629-639, July 1990.
[53] A. Chambolle, "An Algorithm for Total Variation Minimization and Applications," J. Math. Imaging and Vision, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 89-97, Jan. 2004.
[54] J. Bioucas-Dias, M. Figueiredo, and J. Oliveira, "Total Variation-Based Image Deconvolution: A Majorization-Minimization Approach," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, M. Figueiredo, ed., 2006.
[55] Y. Boykov, V. Kolmogorov, D. Cremers, and A. Delong, "An Integral Solution to Surface Evolution PDEs via Geo-Cuts," Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 409-422, 2006.
[56] X. Hu and J. Wang, "Solving Pseudomonotone Variational Inequalities and Pseudoconvex Optimization Problems Using the Projection Neural Network," IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1487-1499, Nov. 2006.
[57] S. Effati and A. Nazemi, "Neural Network Models and Its Application for Solving Linear and Quadratic Programming Problems," Applied Math. and Computation, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 305-331, Jan. 2006.
[58] O.C. Zienkiewics, R.L. Taylor, and J.Z. Zhu, The Finite Element Method: Its Basis and Fundamentals, sixth ed. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005.
[59] R.C. Kirby and A. Logg, "A Compiler for Variational Forms," ACM Trans. Math. Software, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 417-444, 2006.
[60] F. Malgouyres, "Combining Total Variation and Wavelet Packet Approaches for Image Deblurring," Proc. IEEE Workshop Variational and Level Set Methods in Computer Vision, pp. 57-64, 2001.
[61] F. Malgouyres, "Minimizing the Total Variation under a General Convex Constraint for Image Restoration," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1450-1456, Dec. 2002.
[62] N. Kingsbury, "Complex Wavelets for Shift Invariant Analysis and Filtering of Signals," Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 234-253, May 2001.
[63] I. Selesnick, "A New Complex-Directional Wavelet Transform and Its Application to Image Denoising," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Image Processing, vol. 3, pp. 573-576, 2002.
[64] B. Dumitrescu, I. Bayram, and I.W. Selesnick, "Optimization of Symmetric Self-Hilbertian Filters for the Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform," IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 15, pp. 146-149, Jan. 2008.
22 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool