This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Automatic Writer Identification of Ancient Greek Inscriptions
August 2009 (vol. 31 no. 8)
pp. 1404-1414
Michail Panagopoulos, National Technical University of Athens, Athens
Constantin Papaodysseus, National Technical University of Athens, Athens
Panayiotis Rousopoulos, National Techncal University of Athens, Athens
Dimitra Dafi, National Technical University of Athens, Athens
Stephen Tracy, American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Athens
This paper introduces a novel methodology for the classification of ancient Greek inscriptions according to the writer who carved them. Inscription writer identification is crucial for dating the written content, which in turn is of fundamental importance in the sciences of history and archaeology. To achieve this, we first compute an ideal or "platonic” prototype for the letters of each inscription separately. Next, statistical criteria are introduced to reject the hypothesis that two inscriptions are carved by the same writer. In this way, we can determine the number of distinct writers who carved a given ensemble of inscriptions. Next, maximum likelihood considerations are employed to attribute all inscriptions in the collection to the respective writers. The method has been applied to 24 Ancient Athenian inscriptions and attributed these inscriptions to six different identified hands in full accordance with expert epigraphists' opinions.

[1] S.V. Tracy, Attic Letter-Cutters of 300 to 229 B.C. Athens and Macedon, Berkeley ed. 2003.
[2] E.N. Zois and V. Anastassopoulos, “Morphological Waveform Coding for Writer Identification,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 33, pp.385-398, 2000.
[3] H. Said, T. Tan, and K. Baker, “Personal Identification Based on Handwriting,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 149-160, Jan. 2000.
[4] S.-H. Cha and S.N. Srihari, “Multiple Feature Integration for Writer Verification,” Proc. Seventh Int'l Workshop Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition, L.R.B. Schomaker and L.G. Vuurpijl, eds., pp. 333-342, 2000.
[5] U.-V. Marti, R. Messerli, and H. Bunke, “Writer Identification Using Text Line Based Features,” Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. Document Analysis and Recognition, pp. 101-105, Sept. 2001.
[6] A. Bensefia, T. Paquet, and L. Heutte, “Handwriting Analysis for Writer Verification,” Proc. Ninth Int'l Workshop Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition, pp. 196-201, Oct. 2004.
[7] B. Zhang, S.N. Srihari, and S. Lee, “Individuality of Handwritten Characters,” Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Document Analysis and Recognition, Aug. 2003.
[8] A. Schlapbach and H. Bunke, “A Writer Identification and Verification System Using HMM Based Recognizers,” Pattern Analysis and Applications, vol. 10, no. 1, Feb. 2007.
[9] Z. He, B. Fang, J. Du, Y. Yan Tang, and X. You, “A Novel Method for Off-Line Handwriting-Based Writer Identification,” Proc. Eighth Int'l Conf. Document Analysis and Recognition, 2005.
[10] A. Bensefia, T. Paquet, and L. Heutte, “A Writer Identification and Verification System,” Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 26, pp. 2080-2092, 2005.
[11] M. Bulacu and L. Schomaker, “Text-Independent Writer Identification and Verification Using Textural and Allographic Features,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 4, Apr. 2007.
[12] L. Schomaker and M. Bulacu, “Automatic Writer Identification Using Connected-Component Contours and Edge-Based Features of Uppercase Western Script,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 787-798, June 2004.
[13] R.G. Casey and E. Lecolinet, “A Survey of Methods and Strategies in Character Segmentation,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 690-760, July 1996.
[14] Th. Panagopoulos, C. Papaodysseus, M. Exarhos, C. Triantafillou, G. Roussopoulos, and P. Roussopoulos, “Prehistoric Wall-Paintings Reconstruction Using Image Pattern Analysis and Curve Fitting,” WSEAS Trans. Electronics, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 108-113, 2004.
[15] R. Román-Roldán, J.F. Gómez-Lopera, C. Atae-Allah, J. Martínez-Aroza, and P.L. Luque-Escamilla, “A Measure of Quality for Evaluating Methods of Segmentation and Edge Detection,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 34, pp. 969-980, 2001.
[16] C. Papaodysseus, T. Panagopoulos, M. Exarhos, C. Triantafyllou, and D. Fragoulis, “Contour-Shape Based Reconstruction of Fragmented, 1600 B.C. Wall Paintings,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1277-1288, June 2002.
[17] G. Hommel, “A Comparison of Two Modified Bonferroni Procedures,” Biometrica, vol. 76, pp. 624-625, 1989.
[18] V. Pervouchine and G. Leedham, “Extraction and Analysis of Forensic Document Examiner Features Used for Writer Identification,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 40, 2007.

Index Terms:
Writer identification, handwriting classification, ancient Greek inscription classification, handwriting analysis, archaeology, feature modeling, pattern recognition.
Citation:
Michail Panagopoulos, Constantin Papaodysseus, Panayiotis Rousopoulos, Dimitra Dafi, Stephen Tracy, "Automatic Writer Identification of Ancient Greek Inscriptions," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 1404-1414, Aug. 2009, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2008.201
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.