The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.03 - March (2009 vol.31)
pp: 385-399
Tali Treibitz , Technion - Israel Institute of Technology , Haifa
Yoav Y. Schechner , Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa
ABSTRACT
Vision in scattering media is important but challenging. Images suffer from poor visibility due to backscattering and attenuation. Most prior methods for scene recovery use active illumination scanners (structured and gated), which can be slow and cumbersome, while natural illumination is inapplicable to dark environments. The current paper addresses the need for a non-scanning recovery method, that uses active scene irradiance. We study the formation of images under widefield artificial illumination. Based on the formation model, the paper presents an approach for recovering the object signal. It also yields rough information about the 3D scene structure. The approach can work with compact, simple hardware, having active widefield, polychromatic polarized illumination. The camera is fitted with a polarization analyzer. Two frames of the scene are taken, with different states of the analyzer or polarizer. A recovery algorithm follows the acquisition. It allows both the backscatter and the object reflection to be partially polarized. It thus unifies and generalizes prior polarization-based methods, which had assumed exclusive polarization of either of these components. The approach is limited to an effective range, due to image noise and illumination falloff. Thus, the limits and noise sensitivity are analyzed. We demonstrate the approach in underwater field experiments.
INDEX TERMS
Computer vision, Modeling and recovery of physical attributes, Color
CITATION
Tali Treibitz, Yoav Y. Schechner, "Active Polarization Descattering", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, vol.31, no. 3, pp. 385-399, March 2009, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2008.85
REFERENCES
[1] P. Barham, L. Andreone, X.H. Zhang, and M. Vaché, “The Development of a Driver Vision Support System Using Far Infrared Technology: Progress to Date on the Darwin Project,” Proc. IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symp., pp. 545-549, 2000.
[2] M. Ben-Ezra, “Segmentation with Invisible Keying Signal,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp. 32-37, 2000.
[3] T. Chen, H.P.A. Lensch, C. Fuchs, and H.P. Seidel, “Polarization and Phase-Shifting for 3D Scanning of Translucent Objects,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2007.
[4] F. Cozman and E. Kroktov, “Depth from Scattering,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 801-806, 1997.
[5] O.G. Cula, K.J. Dana, D.K. Pai, and D. Wang, “Polarization Multiplexing for Bidirectional Imaging,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 1116-1123, 2005.
[6] S.G. Demos and R.R. Alfano, “Temporal Gating in Highly Scattering Media by the Degree of Optical Polarization,” Optics Letters, vol. 21, pp. 161-163, 1996.
[7] Y. Diamant and Y.Y. Schechner, “Overcoming Visual Reverberations,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2008.
[8] H. Farid and E.H. Adelson, “Separating Reflections from Images by Use of Independent Component Analysis,” J. Optical Soc. Am.A, vol. 16, pp. 2136-2145, 1999.
[9] G.R. Fournier, D. Bonnier, L.J. Forand, and P.W. Pace, “Range-Gated Underwater Laser Imaging System,” Optical Eng., vol. 32, pp. 2185-2190, 1993.
[10] G.C. Giakos, “Active Backscattered Optical Polarimetric Imaging of Scattered Targets,” Proc. IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conf., vol. 1, pp. 430-432, 2004.
[11] G.D. Gilbert and J.C. Pernicka, “Improvement of Underwater Visibility by Reduction of Backscatter with a Circular Polarization Technique,” Applied Optics, vol. 6, pp. 741-746, 1967.
[12] M. Gupta, S. Narasimhan, and Y.Y. Schechner, “On Controlling Light Transport in Poor Visibility Environments,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2008.
[13] Xenon Flash Lamps, Hamamatsu, Catalog TLSX1008E04 (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Electron Tube Center), 1998.
[14] S. Harsdorf, R. Reuter, and S. Tönebön, “Contrast-Enhanced Optical Imaging of Submersible Targets,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 3821, pp.378-383, 1999.
[15] E.S. Harvey and M.R. Shortis, “Calibration Stability of an Underwater Stereo-Video System: Implications for Measurement Accuracy and Precision,” Marine Technology Soc. J., vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 3-17, 1998.
[16] S.L. Jacques, J.C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging Skin Pathology with Polarized Light,” J. Biomedical Optics, vol. 7, pp.329-340, 2002.
[17] J.S. Jaffe, “Computer Modelling and the Design of Optimal Underwater Imaging Systems,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., vol. 15, pp.101-111, 1990.
[18] W.S. Jagger and W.R.A. Muntz, “Aquatic Vision and the Modulation Transfer Properties of Unlighted and Diffusely Lighted Natural Waters,” Vision Research, vol. 33, pp. 1755-1763, 1993.
[19] G. Jarry, E. Steimer, V. Damaschini, M. Epifanie, M. Jurczak, and R. Kaiser, “Coherence and Polarization of Light Propagating through Scattering Media and Biological Tissues,” Applied Optics, vol. 37, pp. 7357-7367, 1998.
[20] R. Kaftory, Y.Y. Schechner, and Y.Y. Zeevi, “Variational Distance-Dependent Image Restoration,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 1-8, 2007.
[21] D.M. Kocak and F.M. Caimi, “The Current Art of Underwater Imaging—With a Glimpse of the Past,” Marine Technology Soc. J., vol. 39, pp. 5-26, 2005.
[22] A.A. Kokhanovsky, Light Scattering Media Optics, third ed., p. 200. Springer, 2004.
[23] M. Levoy, B. Chen, V. Vaish, M. Horowitz, I. McDowall, and M. Bolas, “Synthetic Aperture Confocal Imaging,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 23, pp. 825-834, 2004.
[24] G.D. Lewis, D.L. Jordan, and P.J. Roberts, “Backscattering Target Detection in a Turbid Medium by Polarization Discrimination,” Applied Optics, vol. 38, pp. 3937-3944, 1999.
[25] F.C. MacKintosh, J.X. Zhu, D.J. Pine, and D.A. Weitz, “Polarization Memory of Multiply Scattered Light,” Physical Rev., B, vol. 40, no. 13, pp. 9342-9345, 1989.
[26] B.L. McGlamery, “A Computer Model for Underwater Camera System,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 208, pp. 221-231, 1979.
[27] D. Miyazaki and K. Ikeuchi, “Inverse Polarization Raytracing: Estimating Surface Shape of Transparent Objects,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 910-917, 2005.
[28] C.D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters, chapters3, 5. Academic Press, 1994.
[29] S.P. Morgan and M.E. Ridgway, “Polarization Properties of Light Backscattered from a Two Layer Scattering Medium,” Optics Express, vol. 7, pp. 395-402, 2000.
[30] S.G. Narasimhan and S.K. Nayar, “Vision and the Atmosphere,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 48, pp. 233-254, 2002.
[31] S.G. Narasimhan, S.K. Nayar, B. Sun, and S.J. Koppal, “Structured Light in Scattering Media,” Proc. 10th IEEE Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, vol. 1, pp. 420-427, 2005.
[32] S.K. Nayar, G. Krishnan, M.D. Grossberg, and R. Raskar, “Fast Separation of Direct and Global Components of a Scene Using High Frequency Illumination,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH '06, pp.935-944, 2006.
[33] M.J. Rakovic, G.W. Kattawar, M. Mehrubeoglu, B.D. Cameron, V. Wang, S. Rastegar, and G.L. Coté, “Light Backscattering Polarization Patterns from Turbid Media: Theory and Experiment,” Applied Optics, vol. 38, pp. 3399-3408, 1999.
[34] N. Ratner and Y.Y. Schechner, “Illumination Multiplexing within Fundamental Limits,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 1-8, 2007.
[35] V. Sankaran, M.J. Everett, D.J. Maitland, and J.T. Walsh Jr., “Comparison of Polarized-Light Propagation in Biological Tissue and Phantoms,” Optics Letters, vol. 24, pp. 1044-1046, 1999.
[36] V. Sankaran, J.T. Walsh, and D.J. Maitland, “Comparative Study of Polarized Light Propagation in Biologic Tissues,” J. Biomedical Optics, vol. 7, pp. 300-306, 2002.
[37] Y.Y. Schechner and Y. Averbuch, “Regularized Image Recovery in Scattering Media,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 1655-1660, Sept. 2007.
[38] Y.Y. Schechner and N. Karpel, “Clear Underwater Vision,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp. 536-543, 2004.
[39] Y.Y. Schechner and N. Karpel, “Recovery of Underwater Visibility and Structure by Polarization Analysis,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., vol. 30, pp. 570-587, 2005.
[40] Y.Y. Schechner, S.G. Narasimhan, and S.K. Nayar, “Instant Dehazing of Images Using Polarization,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp. 325-332, 2001.
[41] Y.Y. Schechner, S.G. Narasimhan, and S.K. Nayar, “Polarization-Based Vision through Haze,” Applied Optics, vol. 42, pp. 511-525, 2003.
[42] Y.Y. Schechner, S.K. Nayar, and P.N. Belhumeur, “Multiplexing for Optimal Lighting,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1339-1354, Aug. 2007.
[43] Y.Y. Schechner, J. Shamir, and N. Kiryati, “Polarization and Statistical Analysis of Scenes Containing a Semi-Reflector,” J.Optical Soc. Am. A, vol. 17, pp. 276-284, 2000.
[44] N. Shashar, S. Sabbah, and T.W. Cronin, “Transmission of Linearly Polarized Light in Seawater: Implications for Polarization Signaling,” J. Experimental Biology, vol. 207, pp. 3619-3628, 2004.
[45] S. Shwartz, E. Namer, and Y.Y. Schechner, “Blind Haze Separation,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 1984-1991, 2006.
[46] S. Shwartz, M. Zibulevsky, and Y.Y. Schechner, “Fast Kernel Entropy Estimation and Optimization,” Signal Processing, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 1045-1058, 2005.
[47] M.P. Strand, “Imaging Model for Underwater Range-Gated Imaging Systems,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 1537, pp. 151-160, 1991.
[48] B. Sun, R. Ramamoorthi, S.G. Narasimhan, and S.K. Nayar, “A Practical Analytic Single Scattering Model for Real Time Rendering,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 24, pp. 1040-1049, 2005.
[49] B.A. Swartz and J.D. Cummings, “Laser Range-Gated Underwater Imaging Including Polarization Discrimination,” Proc. SPIE, vol. 1537, pp. 42-56, 1991.
[50] T. Treibitz and Y.Y. Schechner, “Instant 3Descatter,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 1861-1868, 2006.
[51] T. Treibitz, Y.Y. Schechner, and H. Singh, “Flat Refractive Geometry,” Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2008.
[52] J.S. Tyo, M.P. Rowe, E.N. Pugh, and N. Engheta, “Target Detection in Optically Scattering Media by Polarization-Difference Imaging,” Applied Optics, vol. 35, pp. 1855-1870, 1996.
[53] B. Wells, “MTF Provides an Image-Quality Metric,” Laser Focus World, vol. 41, no. 10, 2005.
[54] L.B. Wolff, “Polarization Vision: A New Sensory Approach to Image Understanding,” Image and Vision Computing, vol. 15, pp.81-93, 1997.
7 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool