This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Extreme Compression and Modeling of Bidirectional Texture Function
October 2007 (vol. 29 no. 10)
pp. 1859-1865
The recent advanced representation for realistic real-world materials in virtual reality applications is the Bidirectional Texture Function (BTF) which describes rough texture appearance for varying illumination and viewing conditions. Such a function can be represented by thousands of measurements (images) per material sample. The resulting BTF size excludes its direct rendering in graphical applications and some compression of these huge BTF data spaces is obviously inevitable. In this paper we present a novel, fast probabilistic model-based algorithm for realistic BTF modeling allowing an extreme compression with the possibility of a fast hardware implementation. Its ultimate aim is to create a visual impression of the same material without a pixel-wise correspondence to the original measurements. The analytical step of the algorithm starts with a BTF space segmentation and a range map estimation by photometric stereo of the BTF surface, followed by the spectral and spatial factorization of selected sub-space color texture images. Single mono-spectral band-limited factors are independently modeled by their dedicated spatial probabilistic model. During rendering, the sub-space images of arbitrary size are synthesized and both color (possibly multi-spectral) and range information is combined in a bump-mapping filter according to the view and illumination directions. The presented model offers a huge BTF compression ratio unattainable by any alternative sampling-based BTF synthesis method. Simultaneously this model can be used to reconstruct missing parts of the BTF measurement space.

[1] J. Bennett and A. Khotzand, “Multispectral Random Fields for Synthesis and Analysis of Colour Images,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 327-332, Jan. 1998.
[2] J. Blinn, “Models of Light Reflection for Computer Synthesized Pictures,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 192-198, 1977.
[3] M. Cohen, J. Shade, S. Hiller, and O. Deussen, “Wang Tiles for Image and Texture Generation,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, vol. 22, pp. 287-294, July 2003.
[4] H.S.M. Coxeter, Introduction to Geometry. Wiley, 1969.
[5] K. Dana, B. van Ginneken, S. Nayar, and J. Koenderink, “Reflectance and Texture of Real-World Surfaces,” ACM Trans. Graphics, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1-34, 1999.
[6] A.A. Efros and W.T. Freeman, “Image Quilting for Texture Synthesis and Transfer,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, E. Fiume, ed., pp. 341-346, 2001.
[7] A.A. Efros and T.K. Leung, “Texture Synthesis by Non-Parametric Sampling,” Proc. Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 1033-1038, 1999.
[8] J. Filip and M. Haindl, “Non-Linear Reflectance Model for Bidirectional Texture Function Synthesis,” Proc. 17th Int'l Conf. Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp. 80-84, Aug. 2004.
[9] M. Haindl, “Texture Synthesis,” CWI Quarterly, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 305-331, Dec. 1991.
[10] M. Haindl and J. Filip, “Fast BTF Texture Modelling,” Texture, pp. 47-52, Oct. 2003.
[11] M. Haindl and J. Filip, “A Fast Probabilistic Bidirectional Texture Function Model,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2, pp. 298-305, Sept. 2004.
[12] M. Haindl, J. Filip, and M. Arnold, “BTF Image Space Utmost Compression and Modelling Method,” Proc. 17th Int'l Conf. Pattern Recognition, vol. 3, pp.194-198, Aug. 2004.
[13] M. Haindl and M. Hatka, “BTF Roller,” Texture, pp. 89-94, Oct. 2005.
[14] M. Haindl and V. Havlíèek, “A Multiresolution Causal Colour Texture Model,” Proc. Advances in Pattern Recognition, 2000.
[15] M. Koudelka, S. Magda, P. Belhumeur, and D. Kriegman, “Acquisition, Compression, and Synthesis of Bidirectional Texture Functions,” Texture, pp. 47-52, Oct. 2003.
[16] E.P. Lafortune, S.C. Foo, K.E. Torrance, and D.P. Greenberg, “Non-Linear Approximation of Reflectance Functions,” Computer Graphics, vol. 31, no. annual conf. series, pp. 117-126, 1997.
[17] X. Liu, Y. Yu, and H.Y. Shum, “Synthesizing Bidirectional Texture Functions for Real-World Surfaces,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, E. Fiume, ed., pp. 97-106, 2001.
[18] X. Liu, J. Zhang, X. Tong, B. Guo, and H.-Y. Shum, “Synthesis and Rendering of Bidirectional Texture Functions on Arbitrary Surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 278-289, May/June 2004.
[19] T. Malzbender, D. Gelb, and H. Wolters, “Polynomial Texture Maps,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, pp. 519-528, 2001.
[20] D.K. McAllister, A. Lastra, and W. Heidrich, “Efficient Rendering of Spatial Bi-Directional Reflectance Distribution Functions,” Graphics Hardware, pp.77-88, 2002.
[21] J. Meseth, G. Müller, and R. Klein, “Preserving Realism in Real-Time Rendering of Bidirectional Texture Functions,” Proc. OpenSG Symp., pp. 89-96, Apr. 2003.
[22] G. Müller, J. Meseth, M. Sattler, R. Sarlette, and R. Klein, “Acquisition, Synthesis and Rendering of Bidirectional Texture Functions,” Proc. Eurographics 2004, STAR—State of the Art Report, pp. 69-94, 2004.
[23] A. Neubeck, A. Zalesny, and L. Gool, “3D Texture Reconstruction from Extensive BTF Data,” Texture, Oct. 2005.
[24] F. Nicodemus, J.C. Richmond, J. Hsia, I. Ginsburg, and T. Limperis, “Geometrical Considerations and Nomenclature for Reflectance,” NBS Monograph 160, Nat'l Bureau of Standards, US Dept. of Commerce, pp.1-52, Oct. 1977.
[25] M. Sattler, R. Sarlette, and R. Klein, “Efficient and Realistic Visualization of Cloth,” Proc. Eurographics Symp. Rendering, June 2003.
[26] P. Somol and M. Haindl, “Novel Path Search Algorithm for Image Stitching and Advanced Texture Tiling,” Proc. 13th Conf. Central Europe Computer Graphics, Visualization, and Computer Vision, Feb. 2005.
[27] M. Vasilescu and D. Terzopoulos, “TensorTextures: Multilinear Image-Based Rendering,” Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 336-342, Aug. 2004.
[28] J. Wang and K.J. Dana, “Hybrid Textons: Modeling Surfaces with Reflectance and Geometry,” Proc. IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 372-378, 2004.
[29] T. Welsch, “Parallax Mapping with Offset Limiting: A Per-Pixel Approximation of Uneven Surfaces,” technical report, Infiscape Corp., 2004.
[30] R. Woodham, “Analysing Images of Curved Surface,” Artificial Intelligence, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 117-140, 1981.
[31] H. Yacov, T. Malzbender, and D. Gelb, “Synthesis of Reflectance Function Textures from Examples,” Texture, pp. 47-52, 2003.

Index Terms:
Rough texture, 3D texture, BTF, texture synthesis, texture modeling, data compression
Citation:
Michal Haindl, Jiří Filip, "Extreme Compression and Modeling of Bidirectional Texture Function," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 1859-1865, Oct. 2007, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2007.1139
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.