This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Fast Active Appearance Model Search Using Canonical Correlation Analysis
October 2006 (vol. 28 no. 10)
pp. 1690-1694
A fast AAM search algorithm based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA-AAM) is introduced. It efficiently models the dependency between texture residuals and model parameters during search. Experiments show that CCA-AAMs, while requiring similar implementation effort, consistently outperform standard search with regard to convergence speed by a factor of four.

[1] R. Beichel, G. Gotschuli, E. Sorantin, F. Leberl, and M. Sonka, “Diaphragm Dome Surface Segmentation in CT Data Sets: A 3D Active Appearance Model Approach,” SPIE: Medical Imaging, M. Sonka and J. Fitzpatrick, eds., vol. 4684, pp. 475-484, 2002.
[2] M. Borga, “Learning Multidimensional Signal Processing,” ser. Linkoping Studies in Science and Technology, Dissertations, No. 531, Dept. of Electrical Eng., Linkoping Univ., Linkoping, Sweden, 1998.
[3] L. Breiman and J.H. Friedman, “Predicting Multivariate Responses in Multiple Linear Regression,” J. Royal Statistical Soc., Series A, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 3-54, 1997.
[4] T. Cootes and P. Kittipanya-ngam, “Comparing Variations on the Active Appearance Model Algorithm,” Proc. British Machine Vision Conf., vol. 2, pp. 837-846, 2002.
[5] T.F. Cootes, G.J. Edwards, and C.J. Taylor, “Active Appearance Models,” Proc. European Conf. Computer Vision (ECCV), pp. 484-498, 1998,
[6] T. Cootes, G. Edwards, and C. Taylor, “A Comperative Evaluation of Active Appearance Model Algorithms,” Proc. British Machine Vision Conf., vol. 2, pp. 680-689, 1998.
[7] T.F. Cootes, G.J. Edwards, and C.J. Taylor, “Active Appearance Models,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 681-685, June 2001, .
[8] K. Diamantaras and K. Hornik, “Noisy Principal Component Analysis,” Proc. Conf. Measurement '93, J. Volaufova and V. Witkowsky, eds., pp. 25-33, May 1993.
[9] K.I. Diamantaras and S. Kung, Principal Component Neural Networks. John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
[10] F. Dornaika and J. Ahlberg, “Efficient Active Appearance Model for Real-Time Head and Facial Feature Tracking,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Workshop Analysis and Modeling of Faces and Gestures (AMFG '03), pp. 173-180, 2003.
[11] G. Edwards, C. Taylor, and T. Cootes, “Interpreting Face Images Using Active Appearance Models,” Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition, pp. 300-305, 1998.
[12] R. Gross, I. Matthews, and S. Baker, “Generic vs. Person Specific Active Appearance Models,” Image and Vision Computing, vol. 23, no. 11, pp. 1080-1093, Nov. 2005.
[13] A. Höskuldsson, “PLS Regression Methods,” J. Chemometrics, vol. 2, pp. 211-228, 1988.
[14] H. Hotelling, “Relations between Two Sets of Variates,” Biometrika, vol. 8, pp. 321-377, 1936.
[15] X. Hou, S. Li, H. Zhang, and Q. Cheng, “Direct Appearance Models,” Proc. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conf., vol. 1, pp. 828-833, 2001.
[16] Y. Hua, M. Nikpour, and P. Stoica, “Optimal Reduced-Rank Estimation and Filtering,” IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 457-469, Mar. 2001.
[17] N. Johnson, A. Galata, and D. Hogg, “The Acquisition and Use of Interaction Behaviour Models,” Proc. IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR '98), pp. 866-871, 1998.
[18] B. Lucas and T. Kanade, “An Iterative Image Registration Technique with an Application to Stereo Vision,” Proc. Int'l Joint Conf. Artificial Intelligence, pp. 674-679, 1981.
[19] I. Matthews and S. Baker, “Active Appearance Models Revisited,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 135-164, Nov. 2004.
[20] T. Melzer, M. Reiter, and H. Bischof, “Appearance Models Based on Kernel Canonical Correlation Analysis,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1961-1973, 2003.
[21] S.C. Mitchell, J.G. Bosch, B.P.F. Lelieveldt, R.J. van der Geest, J.H.C. Reiber, and M. Sonka, “3-D Active Appearance Models: Segmentation of Cardiac MR and Ultrasound Images,” IEEE Trans. Medical Imaging, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1167-1178, 2002.
[22] M.M. Nordstrøm, M. Larsen, J. Sierakowski, and M.B. Stegmann, “The IMM Face Database— An Annotated Dataset of 240 Face Images,” technical report, Informatics and Mathematical Modelling, Technical Univ. of Denmark, DTU, May 2004.
[23] A. Pezeshki, L.L. Scharf, M.R. Azimi-Sadjadi, and Y. Hua, “Underwater Target Classification Using Canonical Correlations,” Proc. MTS/IEEE Oceans Conf., 2003.
[24] M.B. Stegmann, “Generative Interpretation of Medical Images,” master's thesis, Technical Univ. of Denmark, 2004.
[25] M.B. Stegmann, H. Olafsdottir, and H.B.W. Larsson, “Unsupervised Motion-Compensation of Multi-Slice Cardiac Perfusion MRI,” Medical Image Analysis, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 394-410, Aug. 2005.

Index Terms:
Image processing and computer vision, active appearance models, statistical image models, subspace methods, medical imaging.
Ren? Donner, Michael Reiter, Georg Langs, Philipp Peloschek, Horst Bischof, "Fast Active Appearance Model Search Using Canonical Correlation Analysis," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1690-1694, Oct. 2006, doi:10.1109/TPAMI.2006.206
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.