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A. Meijster, M.H.F. Wilkinson, "A Comparison of Algorithms for Connected Set Openings and Closings," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 484494, April, 2002.  
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@article{ 10.1109/34.993556, author = {A. Meijster and M.H.F. Wilkinson}, title = {A Comparison of Algorithms for Connected Set Openings and Closings}, journal ={IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence}, volume = {24}, number = {4}, issn = {01628828}, year = {2002}, pages = {484494}, doi = {http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/34.993556}, publisher = {IEEE Computer Society}, address = {Los Alamitos, CA, USA}, }  
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TY  JOUR JO  IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence TI  A Comparison of Algorithms for Connected Set Openings and Closings IS  4 SN  01628828 SP484 EP494 EPD  484494 A1  A. Meijster, A1  M.H.F. Wilkinson, PY  2002 KW  mathematical morphology KW  connected set operators KW  attribute filters KW  pattern spectra KW  multiscale analysis KW  unionfind VL  24 JA  IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence ER   
The implementation of morphological connected set operators for image filtering and pattern recognition is discussed. Two earlier algorithms based on priority queues and hierarchical queues, respectively, are compared to a more recent unionfind approach. Unlike the earlier algorithms which process regional extrema in the image sequentially, the unionfind method allows simultaneous processing of extrema. In the context of area openings, closings, and pattern spectra, the unionfind algorithm outperforms the previous methods on almost all natural and synthetic images tested. Finally, extensions to pattern spectra and the more general class of attribute operators are presented for all three algorithms, and memory usages are compared.
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