This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
An Adaptive Contour Closure Algorithm and Its Experimental Evaluation
November 2000 (vol. 22 no. 11)
pp. 1252-1265

Abstract—The potential of edge-based complete image segmentation into regions has not gained the due attention in the literature thus far. The present paper attempts to explore this potential by proposing an adaptive grouping algorithm to solve the contour closure problem that is the key to a successful edge-based complete image segmentation. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm will be extensively tested in the range image domain and compared to several region-based segmentation methods within a rigorous comparison framework. On three range image databases of varying quality acquired by different range scanners, it will be shown that the proposed approach is able to achieve very appealing performance with respect to both segmentation quality and computation time.

[1] F. Ade, M. Rutishauser, and M. Trobina, “Grasping Unknown Objects,” Modelling and Planning for Sensor Based Intelligent Robot Systems, H. Bunke, T. Kanade, and H. Noltemeier, eds., pp. 445-459, World Scientific, 1995.
[2] E. Al-Hujazi and A. Sood, “Range Image Segmentation with Applications to Robot Bin-Picking Using Vacuum Gripper,” IEEE Trans. SMC, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 1,313-1,325, 1990.
[3] F. Arman and J.K. Aggarwal,“Model-based object recognition in dense-range images—a review,” ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 5-43, 1993
[4] J.L. Barron, D.J. Fleet, and S.S. Beauchemin, “Performance of Optical Flow Techniques,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 43–77, 1994.
[5] P.J. Besl and R.C. Jain,“Segmentation through variable-order surface fitting,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 167-191, Mar. 1988.
[6] R.C. Bolles, H.H. Baker, and M.J. Hannah, “The JISCT Stereo Evaluation,” Proc. Image Understanding Workshop, pp. 263-274, 1993.
[7] S. Borra and S. Sarkar, “A Framework for Performance Characterization of Intermediate-Level Grouping Modules,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, no. 11, pp. 1,306-1,312, Nov. 1997.
[8] Empirical Evaluation Techniques in Computer Vision. K.W. Bowyer and J. Phillips, eds., IEEE Computer Society Press, 1998.
[9] J.-C. Cheng and H.-S. Don, “Roof Edge Detection: A Morphological Skeleton Approach, Advances in Machine Vision: Strategies and Applications, C. Archibald and E. Petriu, eds., pp. 171-191. World Scientific, 1992.
[10] L. Cinque, R. Cucciara, S. Levialdi, S. Martinz, and G. Pignalberi, “Optimal Range Segmentation Parameters through Genetic Algorithms,” Proc. 15th Int'l Conf. Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp. 474-477, 2000.
[11] I.J. Cox, J.M. Rehg, and S. Hingorani, “A Bayesian Multi-Hypothesis Approach to Edge Grouping and Contour Segmentation,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 5-24, 1993.
[12] “Special Issue on Performance Evaluation,” Machine Vision and Applications, H. Christensen and W. Förstner, eds., vol. 9, no. 5/6, pp. 215-340, 1997.
[13] P.J. Flynn and A.K. Jain, “Three-Dimensional Object Recognition,” Handbook of Pattern Recognition and Image Processing: Computer Vision, T.Y. Young, ed., pp. 497-541, Academic Press, 1994.
[14] “Special Issue on Empirical Evaluation of Computer Vision Algorithms,” Computer Vision and Image Understanding, P.J. Flynn, A. Hoover, and P.J. Phillips, eds., 2000.
[15] M.D. Heath, S. Sarkar, T. Sanocki, and K.W. Bowyer, A Robust Visual Method for Assessing the Relative Performance of Edge-Detection Algorithms IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 1338-1359, Dec. 1997.
[16] A. Hoover, G. Jean-Baptiste, X. Jiang, P.J. Flynn, H. Bunke, D. Goldgof, K. Bowyer, D. Eggert, A. Fitzgibbon, and R. Fisher, “An Experimental Comparison of Range Segmentation Algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol 18, no. 7, pp. 673-689, July 1996.
[17] R.C. Jain and T.O. Binford, "Ignorance, Myopia, and Naivete in Computer Vision Systems," CVGIP, vol. 53-1, pp. 112-117, 1991.
[18] X. Jiang, “Optimality Analysis of Edge Detection Algorithms for Range Images,” Image Analysis and Processing, A. Del Bimbo, ed., pp. 182-189, Springer-Verlag, 1997.
[19] X. Jiang and H. Bunke, “Range Image Segmentation: Adaptive Grouping of Edges into Regions,” Proc. Third Asian Conf. Computer Vision, R. Chin and T.-C. Pong, eds., pp. 299-306, Springer-Verlag, 1998.
[20] X. Jiang and P. Kühni, “Search-Based Contour Closure in Range Images,” Proc. 14th Int'l Conf. Pattern Recognition, pp. 16-18, 1998.
[21] X. Jiang and H. Bunke, “Edge Detection in Range Images Based on Scan Line Approximation,” Computer Vision and Image Understanding, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 183-199, 1999.
[22] X. Jiang, S. Hofer, T. Stahs, I. Ahrns, and H. Bunke, “Extraction and Tracking of Surfaces in Range Image Sequences,” Proc. Second Int'l Conf. 3D Digital Imaging and Modeling, pp. 252-260, 1999.
[23] X. Jiang, “Qualitative Decomposition of Range Images into Convex Parts/Objects,” Proc. Int'l Workshop Machine Vision Applications, 2000.
[24] S. Kaveti, E.K. Teoh, and H. Wang, “Second-Order Implicit Polynomials for Segmentation of Range Images,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 937-949, 1996.
[25] N. Kehtarnavaz, S. Mohan, “A Framework of Estimation of Motion Parameters from Range Images,” Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, vol. 45, pp. 88-105. 1989.
[26] Performance Evaluation of Computer Vision Algorithms, R. Klette, H.S. Stiehl, M.Viergever, and K.Vincken, eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000.
[27] M. Kocher and R. Leonardi, “Adaptive Region Growing Technique Using Polynomial Functions for Image Approximation,” Signal Processing, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 47-60, 1986.
[28] R. Krishnapuram and S. Gupta, “Morphological Methods for Detection and Classification for Edges in Range Images, J. Math. Imaging and Vision, vol. 2, pp. 351-375, 1992.
[29] Y. Leedan and P. Meer, “Heteroscedastic Regression in Computer Vision: Problems with Bilinear Constraint,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 127-150, 2000.
[30] Y. Lin, J. Dou, and E. Zhang, “Edge Expression Based on Tree Structure,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 507-517, 1992.
[31] S.-P. Liou, A.H. Chiu, and R.C. Jain, “A Parallel Technique for Signal-Level Perceptual Organization,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 317-325, Apr. 1991.
[32] P. Meer, D. Mintz, and A. Rosenfeld, “Robust Regression Methods for Computer Vision: A Review,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 59-70, 1991.
[33] J. Min, M.W. Powell, and K.W. Bowyer, “Progress in Automated Evaluation of Curved Surface Range Image Segmentation,” Proc. 15th Int'l Conf. Pattern Recognition, vol. 1, pp. 644-647, 2000.
[34] P.G. Mulgahonkar, C.K. Cowan, and J. DeCurtins, “Understanding Object Configurations Using Range Images,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 303-307, Feb. 1992.
[35] D. Nair, A. Mitiche, and J.K. Aggarwal, "On Comparing the Performance of Object Recognition Systems," Int'l Conf. Image Processing, 1995.
[36] V.S. Nalwa and E. Pauchon, “Edge Aggregation and Edge Description,” Computer Graphics and Image Processing, vol. 40, pp. 79-94, 1987.
[37] T.S. Newman, P.J. Flynn, and A.K. Jain, “Model-Based Classification of Quadric Surfaces,” CVGIP: Image Understanding, vol. 58, no. 2, pp 235-249, 1993.
[38] T.S. Newman and A.K. Jain, “A System for 3D CAD-Based Inspection Using Range Images,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1,555-1,574, 1995.
[39] B. Parvin and G. Medioni, “B-Rep Object Description from Multiple Range Views,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 20,no. 1/2, pp. 81-11, 1996.
[40] M. Powell, K.W. Bowyer, X. Jiang, and H. Bunke, “Comparing Curved-Surface Range Image Segmenters,” Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 286-291, 1998.
[41] B. Sabata and J.K. Aggarwal, “Surface Correspondence and Motion Computation from a Pair of Range Images,” Computer Vision and Image Understanding, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 232-250, 1996.
[42] B. Song and S. Lee, “On the Range Image Segmentation Technique Based on Local Correlation,” Proc. Second Asian Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 528-532, 1995.
[43] S. Weisberg, Applied Linear Regression. John Wiley&Sons, 1985.
[44] R. Zhang, P.-S. Tsai, J. Cryer, and M. Shah, Shape from Shading: A Survey IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 690-706, Aug. 1999.
[45] Q. Zhu, M. Payne, and V. Riordan, “Edge Linking by a Directional Potential Function (DPF),” Image and Vision Computing, vol. 14, pp. 59-70, 1996.

Index Terms:
Contour closure, adaptive grouping, directional morphology, image segmentation, performance evaluation.
Xiaoyi Jiang, "An Adaptive Contour Closure Algorithm and Its Experimental Evaluation," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 1252-1265, Nov. 2000, doi:10.1109/34.888710
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.