This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
A Model of Saliency-Based Visual Attention for Rapid Scene Analysis
November 1998 (vol. 20 no. 11)
pp. 1254-1259

Abstract—A visual attention system, inspired by the behavior and the neuronal architecture of the early primate visual system, is presented. Multiscale image features are combined into a single topographical saliency map. A dynamical neural network then selects attended locations in order of decreasing saliency. The system breaks down the complex problem of scene understanding by rapidly selecting, in a computationally efficient manner, conspicuous locations to be analyzed in detail.

[1] J.K. Tsotsos, S.M. Culhane, W.Y.K. Wai, Y.H. Lai, N. Davis, and F. Nuflo, "Modelling Visual Attention via Selective Tuning," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 78, no. 1-2, pp. 507-545, Oct. 1995.
[2] E. Niebur and C. Koch, "Computational Architectures for Attention," R. Parasuraman, ed., The Attentive Brain, pp. 163-186.Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1998.
[3] B.A. Olshausen, C.H. Anderson, and D.C. Van Essen, "A Neurobiological Model of Visual Attention and Invariant Pattern Recognition Based on Dynamic Routing of Information," J. Neuroscience, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 4,700-4,719, Nov. 1993.
[4] C. Koch and S. Ullman, "Shifts in Selective Visual Attention: Towards the Underlying Neural Circuitry," Human Neurobiology, vol. 4, pp. 219-227, 1985.
[5] R. Milanese, S. Gil, and T. Pun, "Attentive Mechanisms for Dynamic and Static Scene Analysis," Optical Eng., vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 2,428-2,434, Aug. 1995.
[6] S. Baluja and D.A. Pomerleau, "Expectation-Based Selective Attention for Visual Monitoring and Control of a Robot Vehicle," Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 22, no. 3-4, pp. 329-344, Dec. 1997.
[7] A.M. Treisman and G. Gelade, "A Feature-Integration Theory of Attention," Cognitive Psychology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 97-136, Jan. 1980.
[8] J.P. Gottlieb, M. Kusunoki, and M.E. Goldberg, "The Representation of Visual Salience in Monkey Parietal Cortex," Nature, vol. 391, no. 6,666, pp. 481-484, Jan. 1998.
[9] D.L. Robinson and S.E. Peterson, "The Pulvinar and Visual Salience," Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 127-132, Apr. 1992.
[10] J.M. Wolfe, "Guided Search 2.0: A Revised Model of Visual Search," Psychonomic Bull. Rev., vol. 1, pp. 202-238, 1994.
[11] H. Greenspan, S. Belongie, R. Goodman, P. Perona, S. Rakshit, and C.H. Anderson, "Overcomplete Steerable Pyramid Filters and Rotation Invariance," Proc. IEEE Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 222-228,Seattle, Wash., June 1994.
[12] A.G. Leventhal, The Neural Basis of Visual Function: Vision and Visual Dysfunction, vol. 4. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 1991.
[13] S. Engel, X. Zhang, and B. Wandell, "Colour Tuning in Human Visual Cortex Measured With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Nature, vol. 388, no. 6,637, pp. 68-71, July 1997.
[14] C. Koch, Biophysics of Computation: Information Processing in Single Neurons.New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1998.
[15] M.W. Cannon and S.C. Fullenkamp, "A Model for Inhibitory Lateral Interaction Effects in Perceived Contrast," Vision Res., vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1,115-1,125, Apr. 1996.
[16] M.I. Posner and Y. Cohen, "Components of Visual Orienting," H. Bouma and D.G. Bouwhuis, eds., Attention and Performance, vol. 10, pp. 531-556.Hilldale, N.J.: Erlbaum, 1984.
[17] The C++ implementation of the model and numerous examples of attentional predictions on natural and synthetic images can be retrieved fromhttp://www.klab.caltech.edu/~ittiattention /.
[18] P. Reinagel and A.M. Zador, "The Effect of Gaze on Natural Scene Statistics," Neural Information and Coding Workshop,Snowbird, Utah,16-20 Mar. 1997.
[19] I. Kovacs and B. Julesz, "A Closed Curve Is Much More Than an Incomplete One: Effect of Closure in Figure-Ground Segmentation," Proc. Nat'l Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., vol. 90, no. 16, pp. 7,495-7,497, Aug. 1993.

Index Terms:
Visual attention, scene analysis, feature extraction, target detection, visual search.
Citation:
Laurent Itti, Christof Koch, Ernst Niebur, "A Model of Saliency-Based Visual Attention for Rapid Scene Analysis," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 20, no. 11, pp. 1254-1259, Nov. 1998, doi:10.1109/34.730558
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.