This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Fingerprint Image Enhancement: Algorithm and Performance Evaluation
August 1998 (vol. 20 no. 8)
pp. 777-789

Abstract—A critical step in automatic fingerprint matching is to automatically and reliably extract minutiae from the input fingerprint images. However, the performance of a minutiae extraction algorithm relies heavily on the quality of the input fingerprint images. In order to ensure that the performance of an automatic fingerprint identification/verification system will be robust with respect to the quality of input fingerprint images, it is essential to incorporate a fingerprint enhancement algorithm in the minutiae extraction module. We present a fast fingerprint enhancement algorithm, which can adaptively improve the clarity of ridge and valley structures of input fingerprint images based on the estimated local ridge orientation and frequency. We have evaluated the performance of the image enhancement algorithm using the goodness index of the extracted minutiae and the accuracy of an online fingerprint verification system. Experimental results show that incorporating the enhancement algorithm improves both the goodness index and the verification accuracy.

[1] T. Chang, "Texture Analysis of Digitized Fingerprints for Singularity Detection," Proc. Fifth ICPR, pp. 478-480, 1980.
[2] P.E. Danielsson and Q.Z. Ye, "Rotation-Invariant Operators Applied to Enhancement of Fingerprints," Proc. Eighth ICPR, pp. 329-333, Rome, 1988.
[3] J.G. Daugman, "Uncertainty Relation for Resolution in Space, Spatial-Frequency, and Orientation Optimized by Two-Dimensional Visual Cortical Filters," J. Optical Soc. Am., vol. 2, pp. 1,160-1,169, 1985.
[4] L. Hong, A.K. Jain, S. Pankanti, and R. Bolle, "Fingerprint Enhancement," Proc. First IEEE WACV, pp. 202-207,Sarasota, Fla., 1996.
[5] D.C. Huang, "Enhancement and Feature Purification of Fingerprint Images," Pattern Recognition, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 1,661-1,671, 1993.
[6] A.K. Jain, L. Hong, and R. Bolle, On-Line Fingerprint Verification IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 302-314, Apr. 1997.
[7] A.K. Jain and F. Farrokhnia, "Unsupervised Texture Segmentation Using Gabor Filters," Pattern Recognition, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1,167-1,186, 1991.
[8] T. Kamei and M. Mizoguchi, "Image Filter Design for Fingerprint Enhancement," Proc. ISCV' 95, pp. 109-114,Coral Gables, Fla., 1995.
[9] K. Karu and A.K. Jain, "Fingerprint Classification," Pattern Recognition, vol. 29 no. 3, pp. 389-404, 1996.
[10] M. Kass and A. Witkin, "Analyzing Oriented Patterns," Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 362-385, 1987.
[11] M. Kawagoe and A. Tojo, "Fingerprint Pattern Classification," Pattern Recognition, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 295-303, 1984.
[12] H.C. Lee and R.E. Gaensslen, Advances in Fingerprint Technology.New York, NY: Elsevier, 1991.
[13] D. Marr, Vision.San Francisco, Calif.: W.H. Freeman, 1982.
[14] A. Moenssens, Fingerprint Techniques.London: Chilton Book Company, 1971.
[15] E. Newham, The Biometric Report.New York, NY: SJB Services, 1995.
[16] L. O'Gorman and J.V. Nickerson, "An Approach to Fingerprint Filter Design," Pattern Recognition, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 29-38, 1989.
[17] A. Rao, A Taxonomy for Texture Description and Identification.New York, NY: Springer-Verlag, 1990.
[18] N. Ratha, S. Chen, and A.K. Jain, "Adaptive Flow Orientation Based Feature Extraction in Fingerprint Images," Pattern Recognition, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1,657-1,672, 1995.
[19] G. Sapiro and A. Bruckstein, "A B-Spline Based Affine Invariant Multiscale Shape Representation," Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Image Analysis and Processing III, pp. 20-22,Monopoli, Italy, 1993.
[20] B.G. Sherlock, D.M. Monro, and K. Millard, "Fingerprint Enhancement by Directional Fourier Filtering," Proc. Visual Image Signal Processing, vol. 141, no. 2, pp. 87-94, Apr. 1994.
[21] A. Sherstinsky and R.W. Picard, "Restoration and Enhancement of Fingerprint Images Using M-Lattice-A Novel Non-Linear Dynamical System," Proc. 12th ICPR-B, pp. 195-200,Jerusalem, 1994.
[22] O.D. Trier and A.K. Jain, "Goal-Directed Evaluation of Binarization Methods," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 17, pp. 1,191-1,201, 1995.

Index Terms:
Biometrics, fingerprint, minutiae, enhancement, Gabor filters, performance evaluation.
Lin Hong, Yifei Wan, Anil Jain, "Fingerprint Image Enhancement: Algorithm and Performance Evaluation," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 777-789, Aug. 1998, doi:10.1109/34.709565
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.