This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
Local Grayvalue Invariants for Image Retrieval
May 1997 (vol. 19 no. 5)
pp. 530-535

Abstract—This paper addresses the problem of retrieving images from large image databases. The method is based on local grayvalue invariants which are computed at automatically detected interest points. A voting algorithm and semilocal constraints make retrieval possible. Indexing allows for efficient retrieval from a database of more than 1,000 images. Experimental results show correct retrieval in the case of partial visibility, similarity transformations, extraneous features, and small perspective deformations.

[1] P.J. Besl and R.C. Jain, "Three-Dimensional Object Recognition," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 75-145, 1985.
[2] R.T. Chin, H. Smith, and S.C. Fralick, "Model-Based Recognition in Robot Vision," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 67-108, 1986.
[3] R.C. Bolles and R. Horaud, "3DPO: A Three-Dimensional Part Orientation System," Int'l J. Robotics Research, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 3-26, 1986.
[4] N. Ayache and O.D. Faugeras, "HYPER: A New Approach for the Recognition and Positioning of 2D Objects," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 44-54, 1986.
[5] D.J. Clemens and D.W. Jacobs, "Model-Group Indexing for Recognition," Proc. DARPA Image Understanding Workshop, 1990, pp. 604-613.
[6] Y. Lamdan and H.J. Wolfson, "Geometric hashing: A general and efficient model-based recognition scheme," Second Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 238-249, 1988.
[7] C.A. Rothwell, Object Recognition Through Invariant Indexing.Oxford, England: Oxford Science Publications, 1995.
[8] M.J. Swain and D.H. Ballard, "Color Indexing," Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 11-32, 1991.
[9] B. Funt and G. Finlayson, "Color Constant Color Indexing," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 522-529, May 1995.
[10] K. Nagao, "Recognizing 3D Objects Using Photometric Invariant," Proc. Fifth Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, 1995, pp. 480-487.
[11] S.K. Nayar and R.M. Bolle, "Computing Reflectance Ratios From an Image," Pattern Recognition, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1,529-1,542, 1993.
[12] D. Slater and G. Healey, "The Illumination-Invariant Recognition of 3D Objects Using Local Color Invariants," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 206-210, Feb. 1996.
[13] B. Schiele and J.L. Crowley, "Object Recognition Using Multidimensional Receptive Field Histograms," Proc. Fourth European Conf. Computer Vision, 1996, pp. 610-619.
[14] M. Turk and A. Pentland, "Face Recognition Using Eigenfaces," Proc. IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1991, pp. 586-591.
[15] H. Murase and S.K. Nayar, "Visual Learning and Recognition of 3D Objects From Appearance," Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 14, pp. 5-24, 1995.
[16] P. Viola, "Feature-Based Recognition of Objects," Proc. AAAI Fall Symp. Series: Machine Learning in Computer Vision: What, Why, and How?, 1993, pp. 60-64.
[17] R.P.N. Rao and D.H. Ballard, "An Active Vision Architecture Based on Iconic Representations," Artificial Intelligence, pp. 461-505, 1995.
[18] M. Lades, J.C. Vorbruggen, J. Buhmann, J. Lange, C. von der Malsburg, R.P. Wurtz, and W. Konen, “Distortion Invariant Object Recognition in the Dynamic Link Architecture,” IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 300-311, Mar. 1993.
[19] X. Wu and B. Bhanu, "Gabor Wavelets for 3D Object Recognition," Proc. Fifth Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, 1995, pp. 537-542.
[20] J.J. Koenderink and A.J. van Doorn, "Representation of Local Geometry in the Visual System," Biological Cybernetics, vol. 55, pp. 367-375, 1987.
[21] B.M. ter Haar Romeny, Geometry-Driven Diffusion in Computer Vision. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994.
[22] T. Lindeberg, Scale-Space Theory in Computer Vision. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1994.
[23] A.P. Witkin, "Scale-Space Filtering," Int'l Joint Conf. Artifical Intelligence, pp. 1,019-1,023, 1983.
[24] R. Deriche and G. Giraudon, "A Computational Approach for Corner and Vertex Detection," Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 101-124, 1993.
[25] C. Schmid, Appariement d'images par invariants locaux de niveaux de gris, PhD thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Gre noble, France, 1996.
[26] C. Harris and M. Stephens, "A Combined Corner and Edge Detector," Alvey Vision Conf., 1988, pp. 147-151.
[27] T.O. Binford and T.S. Levitt, "Quasi-Invariants: Theory and Exploitation," Proc. DARPA Image Understanding Workshop, 1993, pp. 819-829.
[28] L. Florack, The Syntactical Structure of Scalar Images, PhD thesis, Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands, 1993.
[29] L.M.T. Florack, B. ter Haar Romeny, J.J Koenderink, and M.A. Viergever, "General Intensity Transformation and Differential Invariants," J. Mathematical Imaging and Vision, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 171-187, 1994.
[30] B.M. ter Haar Romeny, L.M.J. Florack, A.H. Salden, and M.A. Viergever, "Higher Order Differential Structure of Images," Image and Vision Computing, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 317-325, 1994.
[31] J.J. Koenderink, "The Structure of Images," Biological Cybernetics, vol. 50, pp. 363-396, 1984.
[32] S.D. Shapiro, "Feature Space Transforms for Curve Detection," Pattern Recognition, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 129-143, 1978.
[33] A. Samet, "The Quadtree and Related Hierarchical Data Structures," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 189-259, 1984.
[34] A. Califano and R. Mohan, "Multidimensional Indexing for Recognizing Visual Shapes," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 373-392, 1994.
[35] L. van Gool, P. Kempenaers, and A. Oosterlinck, "Recognition and Semi-Differential Invariants," Proc. Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1991, pp. 454-460.
[36] Z. Zhang, R. Deriche, O. Faugeras, and Q.T. Luong, "A Robust Technique for Matching Two Uncalibrated Images Through the Recovery of the Unknown Epipolar Geometry," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 78, pp. 87-119, 1995.

Index Terms:
Image retrieval, image indexing, graylevel invariants, matching, interest points.
Cordelia Schmid, Roger Mohr, "Local Grayvalue Invariants for Image Retrieval," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 530-535, May 1997, doi:10.1109/34.589215
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.