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Generalized Affine Invariant Image Normalization
May 1997 (vol. 19 no. 5)
pp. 431-440

Abstract—We provide a generalized image normalization technique which basically solved all problems in image normalization. The orientation of any image can be uniquely defined by at most three non-zero generalized complex (GC) moments. The correctness of our method is demonstrated theoretically as well as in practice by applying them to a number of "degenerate" images which have failed other previously reported techniques for image normalization.

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Index Terms:
Image normalization, image orientation, invariant image matching, symmetry detection, fold detection, complex moment, rotationally symmetric image.
Dinggang Shen, Horace H.S. Ip, "Generalized Affine Invariant Image Normalization," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 431-440, May 1997, doi:10.1109/34.589203
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