This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
A Real-Time Matching System for Large Fingerprint Databases
August 1996 (vol. 18 no. 8)
pp. 799-813

Abstract—With the current rapid growth in multimedia technology, there is an imminent need for efficient techniques to search and query large image databases. Because of their unique and peculiar needs, image databases cannot be treated in a similar fashion to other types of digital libraries. The contextual dependencies present in images, and the complex nature of two-dimensional image data make the representation issues more difficult for image databases. An invariant representation of an image is still an open research issue. For these reasons, it is difficult to find a universal content-based retrieval technique. Current approaches based on shape, texture, and color for indexing image databases have met with limited success. Further, these techniques have not been adequately tested in the presence of noise and distortions. A given application domain offers stronger constraints for improving the retrieval performance. Fingerprint databases are characterized by their large size as well as noisy and distorted query images. Distortions are very common in fingerprint images due to elasticity of the skin. In this paper, a method of indexing large fingerprint image databases is presented. The approach integrates a number of domain-specific high-level features such as pattern class and ridge density at higher levels of the search. At the lowest level, it incorporates elastic structural feature-based matching for indexing the database. With a multilevel indexing approach, we have been able to reduce the search space. The search engine has also been implemented on Splash 2—a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based array processor to obtain near-ASIC level speed of matching. Our approach has been tested on a locally collected test data and on NIST-9, a large fingerprint database available in the public domain.

[1] "Application Briefs: Computer Graphics in the Detective Business," IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 14-17, Apr. 1985.
[2] A.L. Abbott, P.M. Athanas, L. Chen, and R.L. Elliott, "Finding Lines and Building Pyramids with Splash 2," Proc. Second IEEE Workshop FPGAs for Custom Computing Machines,Napa Valley, Calif., pp. 155-164, Apr. 1994.
[3] N. Ansari, M.-H. Chen, and E.S.H. Hou, "A Genetic Algorithm for Point Pattern Matching," Dynamic, Genetic, and Chaotic Programming, B. Soucek, ed., pp. 353-371.New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1992.
[4] J.R. Bach, S. Paul, and R. Jain, “A Visual Information Management System for the Interactive Retrieval of Faces,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 619-628, 1993.
[5] D.H. Ballard and C.M. Brown, Computer Vision, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J., 1982.
[6] J.L. Blue, G.T. Candela, P.J. Grother, R. Chellappa, and C.L. Wilson, "Evaluation of Pattern Classifiers for Fingerprint and OCR applications," Pattern Recognition, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 485-501, Apr. 1994.
[7] J.N. Bradley and C.M. Brislawn, The Wavelet/Scalar Quantization Standard for Digital Fingerprint Image Compression. Proc. IEEE ISCAS-94,London, vol. 3, pp. 205-208, 1994.
[8] Splash 2: FPGAs for Custom Computing Machines, D.A. Buell, J.M. Arnold, and W.J. Kleinfelder, eds. Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1996.
[9] A. Califano and R. Mohan, "Multidimensional Indexing for Recognizing Visual Shapes," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 373-392, 1994.
[10] A.F. Cardenas et al., “The Knowledge-Based Object-Oriented Picquery+Language,” IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., Vol. 5, No. 4, 1993, pp. 644–657.
[11] C.C. Chang and S.Y. Lee, “Retrieval of Similar Pictures on Pictorial Databases,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 675–680, 1991.
[12] S.-K. Chang and A.D. Hsu, “Image-Information Systems—Where Do We Go from Here?“ IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Eng., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 431-442, Oct. 1992.
[13] S.-K. Chang and S.-H. Liu, "Picture Indexing and Abstraction Techniques for Pictorial Databases," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 475-483, July 1984.
[14] S.K. Chang, Q.Y. Shi, and C.W. Yan, “Iconic Indexing by 2-D Strings,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 413-427, July 1987.
[15] M. Chock, A.F. Cardenas, and A. Klinger, "Database Structure and Manipulation Capabilities of a Picture Database Management System (PICDMS)," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 484-492, July 1984.
[16] The Science of Fingerprints: Classification and Uses, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984.
[17] M. Gokhale, W. Holmes, A. Kopser, S. Lucas, R. Minnich, D. Sweely, and D. Lopresti, "Building and Using Highly Parallel Programmable Logic Array," Computer, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 81-89, Jan. 1991.
[18] W.I. Gorsky and R. Mehrotra, "Index-Based Object Recognition in Pictorial Data Management," Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, vol. 52, pp. 416-436, 1990.
[19] D.C.D. Hung, "Enhancement and Feature Purification of Fingerprint Images," Pattern Recognition, vol. 26, no. 11, pp. 1,661-1,671, Nov. 1993.
[20] D.K. Isenor and S.G. Zaky, "Fingerprint Identification Using Graph Matching," Pattern Recognition, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 113-122, 1986.
[21] A.K. Jain and A. Vailaya, "Image Retrieval Using Color and Shape," Proc. ACCV, vol. 2, pp. 529-533,Singapore, 1995.
[22] T. Joseph and A.F. Cardenas, "PICQUERY: A High Level Query Language for Pictorial Database Management," IEEE Trans. Software Engineering, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 630-638, May 1988.
[23] K. Karu and A.K. Jain, "Fingerprint Classification," Pattern Recognition, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 389-404, Mar. 1996.
[24] M. Kawagoe and A. Tojo, "Fingerprint Pattern Classification," Pattern Recognition, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 295-303, 1984.
[25] Y. Lamdan and H.J. Wolfson, "Geometric hashing: A general and efficient model-based recognition scheme," Second Int'l Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 238-249, 1988.
[26] Advances in Fingerprint Technology, H.C. Lee and R.E. Gaensslen, eds. New York: Elsevier, 1991.
[27] B.M. Mehtre, "Fingerprint Image Analysis for Automatic Identification," Machine Vision and Applications, vol. 6, pp. 124-139, 1993.
[28] B. Miller, "Vital Signs of Identity," IEEE Spectrum, Feb. 1994, pp. 22-30.
[29] B. Moayer and K.S. Fu, "A Syntactic Approach to Fingerprint Pattern Recognition," Pattern Recognition, vol. 7, pp 1-23, 1975.
[30] W. Niblack, R. Barber, W. Equitz, M. Flickner, E. Glasman, D. Petkovic, P. Yanker, C. Faloutsos, and G. Taubin, "The QBIC Project: Querying Image by Content Using Color, Texture, and Shape," Proc. SPIE Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases, pp. 173-187,San Jose, Calif., 1993.
[31] J.A. Orenstein and F.A. Manola, "PROBE Spatial Data Modeling and Query Processing in an Image Database Application," IEEE Trans. Software Engineering, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 611-629, May 1988.
[32] A. Pentland, R.W. Picard, and S. Sclaroff, "Photobook: Tools for Content-Based Manipulation of Image Databases," Proc. SPIE Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases II, pp. 34-47,San Jose, Calif., 1994.
[33] R.W. Picard and T.P. Minka, “Vision Texture for Annotation,” Multimedia Systems, vol. 3, pp. 3-14, 1995.
[34] A.R. Rao, A Taxonomy for Texture Description and Identification.New York: Springer-Verlag, 1990.
[35] C.V.K. Rao and K. Black, "Type Classification of Fingerprints. IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 2, no. 223-231, pp. 31, 1980.
[36] N.K. Ratha, S. Chen, and A.K. Jain, "Adaptive Flow Orientation Based Texture Extraction in Fingerprint Images," Pattern Recognition, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1,657-1,672, Nov. 1995.
[37] I. Rigoutsos and R. Hummel, "Massively Parallel Model Matching—Geometric Hashing on the Connection Machine," Computer, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 33-42, Feb. 1992.
[38] N. Roussopoulos et al., “An Efficient Pictorial Database System for PSQL,” IEEE Trans. Software Eng., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 639-651, May 1988.
[39] B.G. Sherlock, D.M. Monro, and K. Millard, "Fingerprint Enhancement by Directional Fourier Filtering," Proc. Visual Image Signal Processing, vol. 141, no. 2, pp. 87-94, Apr. 1994.
[40] S.W. Smoliar and H.J. Zhang, “Content-Based Video Indexing and Retrieval,” IEEE Multimedia, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 62-72, 1994.
[41] V.S. Srinivasan and N.N. Murthy, "Detection of Singular Points in Fingerprint Images," Pattern Recognition, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 139-153, Feb. 1992.
[42] F. Stein and G. Medioni, "Structural Indexing: Efficient 2D Object Recognition," IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 1,198-1,204, Dec. 1992.
[43] M.J. Swain and B.H. Ballard, “Color Indexing,” Int'l J. Computer Vision, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 11-32, 1991.
[44] J. Ton and A.K. Jain, "Registering Landsat Images by Point Matching," IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 642-651, Sept. 1989.
[45] C.I. Watson, NIST Special Database 9: Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs, Advanced Systems Division, Image Recognition Group, National Institute for Standards and Tech nology, Feb. 1993.
[46] J.H. Wegstein, "An Automated Fingerprint Identification System," Technical Report 500-89, National Bureau of Standards, Bethesda, Md., 1982.
[47] J.K. Wu and A.D. Narasimhalu, "Identifying Faces Using Multiple Retrievals," IEEE Multimedia, pp. 27-38, Summer 1994.
[48] J.K. Wu, A.D. Narasimhalu, B.M. Mehtre, C.P. Lam, and Y.J. Gao, “CORE: A Content Based Retrieval System for Multimedia Information Systems,” Multimedia Systems, vol. 3, pp. 25-41, 1995.
[49] Q. Xiao and H. Raafat, "Fingerprint Image Post-processing: A Combined Statistical and Structural Approach," Pattern Recognition, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 985-992, Oct. 1991.
[50] A. Yoshitaka, S. Kishida, M. Hirakawa, and T. Ichikawa, "Knowledge-Assisted Content Based Retrieval for Multimedia Databases," IEEE Multimedia, pp. 12-21, Winter 1994.

Index Terms:
Image database, fingerprint matching, minutiae points, image registration, indexing, field programmable gate array.
Nalini K. Ratha, Kalle Karu, Shaoyun Chen, Anil K. Jain, "A Real-Time Matching System for Large Fingerprint Databases," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 799-813, Aug. 1996, doi:10.1109/34.531800
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.