This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
MARCO: MAp Retrieval by COntent
August 1996 (vol. 18 no. 8)
pp. 783-798

Abstract—A system named MARCO (denoting MAp Retrieval by COntent) that is used for the acquisition, storage, indexing, and retrieval of map images is presented. The input to MARCO are raster images of separate map layers and raster images of map composites. A legend-driven map interpretation system converts map layer images from their physical representation to their logical representation. This logical representation is then used to automatically index both the composite and the layer images. Methods for incorporating logical and physical layer images as well as composite images into the framework of a relational database management system are described. Indices are constructed on both the contextual and the spatial data thereby enabling efficient retrieval of layer and composite images based on contextual as well as spatial specifications. Example queries and query processing strategies using these indices are described. The user interface is demonstrated via the execution of an example query. Results of an experimental study on a large amount of data are presented. The system is evaluated in terms of accuracy and in terms of query execution time.

[1] S.V. Ablameyko, B.S. Beregov, and A.N. Kryuchkov, "Computer-Aided Cartographical System for Map Digitizing," Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Document Analysis and Recognition, pp. 115-118,Tsukuba Science City, Japan, Oct. 1993.
[2] W.G. Aref and H. Samet, “Optimization Strategies for Spatial Query Processing,” Proc. 17th Conf. Very Large Databases, pp. 81-90, 1991.
[3] S. Arya, D.M. Mount, N.S. Netanyahu, R. Silverman, and A.Y. Wu, “An Optimal Algorithm for Approximate Nearest Neighborhood Searching,” Proc. Symp. Discrete Algorithms, pp. 573-582, 1994.
[4] J.L. Blue, G.T. Candela, P.J. Grother, R. Chellappa, and C.L. Wilson, "Evaluation of Pattern Classifiers for Fingerprints and OCR Applications," Pattern Recognition, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 485-501, Apr. 1994.
[5] G.L. Cash and M Hatamian, "Optical Character Recognition by the Method of Moments," Computer Vision, Graphics, and Image Processing, vol. 39, pp. 291-310, 1987.
[6] P. Devijver and J. Kittler, Statistical Pattern Recognition.Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1982.
[7] J.H. Friedman, J.L. Bentley, and R.A. Finkel, "An Algorithm for Finding Best Matches in Logarithmic Expected Time," ACM Trans. on Math. Software, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 209-226, Sept. 1977.
[8] A. Guttman, “R-Trees: A Dynamic Index Structure for Spatial Searching,” Proc. ACM SIGMOD Conf. Management of Data, 1984.
[9] G.R. Hjaltason and H. Samet, “Ranking in Spatial Databases,” Proc. Fourth Int'l Symp. Large Spatial Databases, pp. 83-95, 1995.
[10] R. Jain, “NSF Workshop on Visual Information Management Systems,” SIGmod Record , Vol. 22, No. 3, Dec. 1993, pp. 57-75.
[11] R. Kasturi, R. Raman, and C. Chennubhotla, "Document Image Analysis: An Overview of Techniques for Graphics Recognition," Proc. IAPR Workshop Syntactic and Structured Pattern Recognition, pp. 192-230,Murray Hill, N.J., June 1990.
[12] M.L. Larsgaard, Map Librarianship: An Introduction, second edition. Littleton, Colo.: Libraries Unlimited, 1987.
[13] M.D. Levine, Vision in Man and Machine.New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.
[14] R.C. Nelson and H. Samet, "A Consistent Hierarchical Representation for Vector Data," Computer Graphics, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 197-206, Aug. 1986. (Also Proc. SIGGRAPH '86 Conf., Dallas, Aug. 1986.)
[15] W. Niblack, R. Barber, W. Equitz, M. Flickner, E. Glasman, D. Petkovic, and P. Yanker, "The QBIC Project: Querying Images by Content Using Color, Texture, and Shape," Proc. SPIE Storage and Retrieval of Image and Video Databases vol. 1,908, pp. 173-187,San Jose, Calif., Feb. 1993.
[16] J. Ousterhout, Tcl and the Tk Toolkit, Addison Wesley Longman, Reading, Mass., 1994.
[17] A. Pentland, R.W. Picard, and S. Sclaroff, "Photobook: Content-Based Manipulation of Image Databases," Proc. SPIE Storage and Retrieval of Image and Video Databases II, vol. 2,185, pp. 34-57,San Jose, Calif., Feb. 1994.
[18] D.J. Peuquet, "An Examination of Techniques for Reformatting Cartographic Data Part 1: The Raster-to-Vector Process," Cartographica, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 34-48, Jan. 1981.
[19] J. Rasure and C. Williams, "An Integrated Visual Language and Software Development Environment," J. Visual Languages and Computing, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 217-245, Sept. 1991.
[20] A. Rosenfeld and A.C. Kak,Digital Picture Processing. Academic Press, 2nd ed., 1982
[21] D. Rotem, "Spatial Join Indices," Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Data Eng., pp. 500-509, 1991.
[22] H. Samet, The Design and Analysis of Spatial Data Structures. Addison-Wesley, 1990.
[23] H. Samet, “Spatial Data Structures,” Modern Database Systems, pp. 361-385, 1995.
[24] H. Samet and A. Soffer, "Automatic Interpretation of Floor Plans Using Spatial Indexing," Progress in Image Analysis and Processing III, S. Impedovo, ed., pp. 233-240.Singapore: World Scientific, 1994.
[25] H. Samet and A. Soffer, "Integrating Images into a Relational Database System," Technical Report CS-TR-3371, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Oct. 1994.
[26] H. Samet and A. Soffer, "A Legend-Driven Geographic Symbol Recognition System," Proc. 12th Int'l Conf. Pattern Recognition, vol. 2, pp. 350-355,Jerusalem, Oct. 1994.
[27] H. Samet and A. Soffer, "Magellan: Map Acquisition of Geographic Labels by Legend Analysis," Technical Report CS-TR-3386, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Dec. 1994.
[28] J. Star and J. Estes, Geographic Information Systems, chap. 6, pp. 85-91.Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1990.
[29] M. Stonebraker, J. Frew, and J. Dozier, “The Sequoia 2000 Project,” Proc. Third Int'l Symp. Large Spatial Databases, 1993.
[30] S. Suzuki and T. Yamada, "MARIS: Map Recognition Input System," Pattern Recognition, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 919-933, Aug. 1990.
[31] M. Swain, "Interactive Indexing into Image Databases," Storage and Retrieval for Image and Video Databases, vol. 1,908, pp. 95-103. SPIE, 1993.
[32] N. Tanaka, T. Kamimura, and J. Tsukumo, "Development of a Map Vectorization Method Involving a Shape Reforming Process," Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Document Analysis and Recognition, pp. 680-683,Tsukuba Science City, Japan, Oct. 1993.

Index Terms:
Map storage and retrieval, document storage, digital libraries, automated indexing, retrieval by content, map interpretation, Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
Hanan Samet, Aya Soffer, "MARCO: MAp Retrieval by COntent," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 783-798, Aug. 1996, doi:10.1109/34.531799
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.