This Article 
 Bibliographic References 
 Add to: 
A Game-Theoretic Approach to Integration of Modules
November 1994 (vol. 16 no. 11)
pp. 1074-1086

This paper offers a new approach to integration of modules in an intelligent sensor system. Such a system requires that a set of modules-each doing a smaller portion of the overall task-be integrated within a unifying framework. From the perspective of computational systems, this problem holds a considerable interest because it is characterized by a set of coexisting mathematical objectives that need to be optimized simultaneously. In this sense, the design considerations necessitate the introduction of problem solving with multiple objectives. This paper explores these issues in the instance when each module is associated with a mathematical objective that is a function of the outputs of other modules. The integration problem is formulated and what is required of a good solution is presented. This examination interprets the decentralized mediation of conflicting subgoals as promoting a N-player game amongst the modules to be integrated and proposes a game-theoretic integration framework. We model the interaction among the modules as a noncooperative game and argue that this strategy leads to a framework in which the solutions correspond to a compromise decision. The application of this framework in image analysis motivates the hope that a framework such as game-theoretic integration will facilitate the development of general design principles for "modular" systems.

[1] A. L. Abott and N. Ahuja, "Active surface reconstruction by integrating focus, stereo and camera calibration," inProc. Int. Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 489-492, 1990.
[2] P. Allen,Robotic Object Recognition Using Vision and Touch. New York: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1987.
[3] J. Y. Aloimonos, "Unification and integration of visual modules" inProc. Image Understanding Workshop, (DARPA), 1989.
[4] T. Basar and G. J. Olsder,Dynamic Noncooperative Game Theory. New York: Academic Press, 1982.
[5] D. H. Ballard and C. M. Brown,Computer Vision. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982.
[6] R. Belknap, E. Riseman, and A. Hanson, "The information fusion problem and rule-based hypotheses applied to complex aggregations of events," inProc. IEEE Comp. Soc. Conf. on CVPR, 1986.
[7] J. O. Berger,Statistical Decision Theory and Bayesian Analysis. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1985.
[8] D. P. Bertsekas and J. N. Tsitsiklis, "Some aspects of parallel and distributed iterative algorithms--A survey,"Automatica, 1991.
[9] T. Binford, "Survey of model-based image analysis systems,"Int. J. Robotics Res., vol. 1, 1982.
[10] H. I. Bozma, "Decentralized integration in modular systems using a game-theoretic framework," Ph.D Thesis, Yale University, 1991.
[11] H. I. Bozma and J. S. Duncan, "Integration of vision modules: A game-theoretic approach," inProc. Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1991.
[12] H. I. Bozma and J. S. Duncan, "Noncooperative games for decentralized integration architectures in modular systems," inProc. IEEE Workshop Robots and Intelligent Systems, 1991.
[13] R. A. Brooks, P. Maes, M. J. Mataric, and G. More, "Lunar base construction robots," inIEEE Workshop on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 389-392, 1990.
[14] L.D. Erman et al., "The Hearsay-II Speech Understanding System: Integrating Knowledge to Resolve Uncertainty,"ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 12, No. 2, June 1980, pp. 213-253.
[15] T. D. Garvey, J. D. Lowrance, and M. A. Fischler, "An inference technique for integrating knowledge from disparate sources," inIJCAI, pp. 319-325, 1983.
[16] M. A. Gennert, "Brightness-based stereo matching," inProc. Second Int. Conf. Computer Vision, pp. 139-143, 1988.
[17] M. A. Gennert and A. L. Yuille, "Determining the optimal weights in multiple objective function optimization," inProc. Second Int. Conf. Comput. Vision, Dec. 1988, pp. 87-89.
[18] W. E. L. Grimson and T. Lozano-Pérez, "Model-based recognition and localization of sparse range or tactile data,"Int. J. Robotics Res., 1987.
[19] J. K. Hackett, M. J. Lavoie, and M. Shah, "Three-dimensional object recognition using multiple sensors," inSPIE Sensor Fusion III: 3-D Perception and Recognition, vol. 1383, pp. 611-622, 1990.
[20] A. R. Hanson and E. M. Riseman, "Position questions," inComputer Vision Systems, A. R. Hanson and E. M. Riseman, Eds. 1978.
[21] W. Hoff and N. Ahuja, "Surfaces from stereo: Integrating feature matching, disparity estimation, and contour detection,"IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 121-136, 1989.
[22] B. K. P. Horn, "Height and gradient from shading," inProc. Image Understanding Workshop (DARPA), pp. 584-595, 1989.
[23] T.F.G. Laugier, "On line reactive planning for a non holonomic mobile in a dynamic world," inIEEE Int. Conf. Robotics Automat., pp. 432-437, 1991.
[24] S. Li and T. Basar, "Distributed algorithms for the computation of noncooperative equilibria,"Automatica, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 523-533, 1987.
[25] D.G. Luenberger,Linear and Nonlinear Programming. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1984.
[26] R. C. Luo and M. G. Kay, "Multisensor integration and fusion in intelligent systems,"IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. 19, pp. 901-931, Sept./Oct. 1989.
[27] R. C. Luo, M. Lin, and R. S. Scherp, "The issues and approaches of a robot multi-sensor integration," inProc. IEEE Robotics Automation Conf., Mar. 31-Apr. 3, 1987, pp. 1941-1946.
[28] M. S. Mahmoud, "Multilevel systems control and applications: A survey,"IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cyber., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 125-143, 1977.
[29] K. S. Narendra and R. M. Wheeler, "Convergence of decentralized algorithms," inProc. Fourth Year Workshop on Applications of Adaptive Systems Theory, pp. 105-112, 1985.
[30] P. Parent and S. W. Zucker, "Trace inference, curvature consistency, and curve detection,"IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., vol. 11, no. 8, 1989.
[31] T. Pavlidis and Y. Liow, "Integrating region growing and edge detection,"IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., vol. 12, no. 3, 1990.
[32] B. Pratt,Digital Image Processing, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1992.
[33] K. S. Roberts, "Coordinating a robot arm and multi-finger hand using the quaternion representation," inProc. 1990 IEEE Int. Conf. Robotics Automat., pp. 1252-1257, 1990.
[34] R. G. Smith and R. Davis, "Frameworks for cooperation in distributed problem solving,"IEEE Trans. Systems Man Cyber., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 61-69, 1981.
[35] M. K. Starr and M. Zeleny,Multiple Criteria Decision Making. New York: North-Holland, 1977.
[36] L. A. Zadeh, "Optimality and non-scalar valued performance criteria,"IEEE Trans. Automat. Contr., pp. 59-60, 1963.
[37] S. W. Zucker, "Vertical and horizantal processes in low level vision," inComputer Vision Systems, A. R. Hanson and E. M. Riseman, Eds. 1987.
[38] S.W. Zucker, C. David, L. Dobbins, and L. Iverson, "The organization of curve detection: Coarse tanget fields and fine spline coverings," inProc. 2nd ICCV, Tarpon Springs, FL, 1988, pp. 568-577.
[39] J.S. Duncan and T. Birkhölzer, "Reinforcement of linear structure using parametrized relaxation labeling,"IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 502-515, 1992.
[40] L. H. Staib and J. S. Duncan, "Boundary finding with parametrically deformable models,"IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1061-1075, 1992.
[41] J. Nash, "Non-cooperative games,"Annals of Mathematics, vol. 54, 1951.

Index Terms:
artificial intelligence; image processing; sensor fusion; game theory; image sensors; modules integration; game theory; intelligent sensor system; noncooperative game; image analysis; modular systems; multiobjective decision making
H.I. Bozma, J.S. Duncan, "A Game-Theoretic Approach to Integration of Modules," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1074-1086, Nov. 1994, doi:10.1109/34.334387
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.