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Active Stereo: Integrating Disparity, Vergence, Focus, Aperture and Calibration for Surface Estimation
October 1993 (vol. 15 no. 10)
pp. 1007-1029

An approach to integrating stereo disparity, camera vergence, and lens focus to exploit their complementary strengths and weaknesses through active control of camera focus and orientations is presented. In addition, the aperture and zoom settings of the cameras are controlled. The result is an active vision system that dynamically and cooperatively interleaves image acquisition with surface estimation. A dense composite map of a single contiguous surface is synthesized by automatically scanning the surface and combining estimates of adjacent, local surface patches. This problem is formulated as one of minimizing a pair of objective functions. The first such function is concerned with the selection of a target for fixation. The second objective function guides the surface estimation process in the vicinity of the fixation point. Calibration parameters of the cameras are treated as variables during optimization, thus making camera calibration an integral, flexible component of surface estimation. An implementation of this method is described, and a performance evaluation of the system is presented. An average absolute error of less than 0.15% in estimated depth was achieved for a large surface having a depth of approximately 2 m.

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Index Terms:
active stereo; active camera control; minimization; fixation target selection; aperture; calibration; surface estimation; stereo disparity; camera vergence; lens focus; zoom settings; image acquisition; dense composite map; single contiguous surface; local surface patches; cameras; stereo image processing
Citation:
N. Ahuja, A.L. Abbott, "Active Stereo: Integrating Disparity, Vergence, Focus, Aperture and Calibration for Surface Estimation," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1007-1029, Oct. 1993, doi:10.1109/34.254059
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