This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Trinocular Active Range-Sensing
May 1993 (vol. 15 no. 5)
pp. 477-483

Trinocular active devices have the advantage of freedom from mechanical scanning and rapid image capture compared with more conventional active designs based on scanning laser stripes. Their efficient operation relies, however, on a good solution to the correspondence problem. This requires careful geometric design to take account of epipolar geometry and thorough modeling of image-measurement error. A design that, involves setting up the projector-camera geometry to be degenerate-so that depth computation is ill-conditioned-and then backing off a little is presented. This is called near-degenerate epipolar alignment. The result is that unambiguous stereo matching can, in principle, be guaranteed within a given working volume. This is in marked contrast with passive stereo in which ambiguity cannot be guaranteed, merely minimized statistically. The principles have proved to work well in laboratory tests, achieving unambiguous operation over a working volume of a 50-mm cube with a depth resolution of around 0.2 mm.

[1] M. D. Altschuler, B. R. Altschuler and J. Taboceda, "Laser electro-optic system for rapid three-dimensional topographic mapping of surfaces,"Opt. Eng., vol. 20, pp. 953-961, 1981.
[2] M. D. Altschuleret al., "Robot vision by encoded light beams," inThree-Dimensional Machine Vision, T. Kanade, (Ed). Boston: Kluwer, 1987, pp. 97-150.
[3] C. M. Bastuscheck and J. T. Schwartz, "Preliminary implementation of a ratio image distance sensor,"Robotics Rep. 28, Robotics Activity, New York Univ., 1984.
[4] C. M. Bastuscheck and J. T. Schwartz, "Techniques for real-time generation of range images,"IEEE Proc. CVPR, 1989, pp. 262-268.
[5] P. Besl, "Active, optical range imaging sensors,"Machine Vision Applications, vol. 1, pp. 127-152, 1988.
[6] A. Blake, D. McCowen, H. R. Lo, and D. Konash, "Epipolar geometry for trinocular active range sensors," inProc. British Machine Vision Conf.(Oxford), 1990, pp. 19-25.
[7] A. Blake, "Three-dimensional vision system," British Patent Application, 1991.
[8] K.L. Boyer and A.C. Kak, "Color-encoded structure light for rapid range sensing,"IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., vol. PAMI-9, no. 1, pp. 14-28, Jan. 1987.
[9] J. F. Canny, "A computational approach to edge detection,"IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., vol. PAMI-8, pp. 679-697, 1986.
[10] S. K. Case, J. A. Jalkio, and R. C. Kim, "3-D vision system analysis and design, inThree-Dimensional Machine Vision, (T. Kanade, Ed.). Boston: Kluwer, 1987, pp. 63-76.
[11] G. Hu and G. Stockman, "3-D surface solution using structured light and constraint propagation,"IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Machine Intell., vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 390-402, 1989.
[12] M. Ito and A. Ishii, "Range and shape measurement using three-view stereo analysis," inProc. CVPR, (Florida Beach), 1986, pp. 9-14.
[13] R. A. Jarvis, "A perspective on range-finding techniques for computer vision,"IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Machine Intell., vol. PAMI-5, no. 5, pp. 122-139, 1983.
[14] R. A. Jarvis, "A laser time-of-flight sensor for robotic vision,"IEEE Trans. Patt. Anal. Machine Intell., vol. PAMI-5, no. 5, pp. 505-512, 1983.
[15] J. H. Kremers and R. C. Belles, "Implement-positioning control apparatus and processing," UK Patent Application 2 104 652A, 1981.
[16] J. L. Mundy and G. B. Porter, "A three-dimensional sensor based on structured light," inThree-Dimensional Machine Vision(T. Kanade, Ed.). Boston: Kluwer, 1987, pp. 3-62.
[17] J. L. Posdamer and M. D. Altschuler, "Surface measurement by space-encoded projected beam systems,"Computer Graphics Image Processing, vol. 18, pp. 1-17, 1982.
[18] G-T. Reid, "Moiréfringes in metrology,"Opt. Lasers Eng., vol. 5, pp. 63-93, 1984.
[19] Y. Shirai, "Recognition of polyhedrons with a rangefinder,"J. Artificial Intell., vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 243-250, 1972.
[20] R.Y. Tsai, "A Versatile Camera Calibration Technique for High-Accuracy 3D Machine Vision Metrology Using Off-the-Shelf TV Cameras and Lenses,"IEEE J. of Robotics and Automation, Vol. RA-3, No. 4, Aug. 1987, pp. 323-344.

Index Terms:
trinocular active range sensing; image recognition; image capture; geometric design; epipolar geometry; image-measurement error; projector-camera geometry; near-degenerate epipolar alignment; stereo matching; geometry; image recognition; image sensors
Citation:
A. Blake, D. McCowen, H.R. Lo, P.J. Lindsey, "Trinocular Active Range-Sensing," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 477-483, May 1993, doi:10.1109/34.211467
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.