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A Unified Approach to the Linear Camera Calibration Problem
July 1990 (vol. 12 no. 7)
pp. 663-671

The camera calibration process relates camera system measurements (pixels) to known reference points in a three-dimensional world coordinate system. The calibration process is viewed as consisting of two independent phases: the first is removing geometrical camera distortion so that rectangular calibration grids are straightened in the image plane, and the second is using a linear affine transformation as a map between the rectified camera coordinates and the geometrically projected coordinates on the image plane of known reference points. Phase one is camera-dependent, and in some systems may be unnecessary. Phase two is concerned with a generic model that includes 12 extrinsic variables and up to five intrinsic parameters. General methods handling additional constraints on the intrinsic variables in a manner consistent with explicit satisfaction of all six constraints on the orthogonal rotation matrix are presented. The use of coplanar and noncoplanar calibration points is described.

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Index Terms:
3D world coordinate systems; geometrical distortion; coplanar calibration; linear camera calibration; image plane; linear affine transformation; extrinsic variables; intrinsic variables; orthogonal rotation matrix; noncoplanar calibration; calibration; cameras; computer vision; picture processing
W.I. Grosky, L.A. Tamburino, "A Unified Approach to the Linear Camera Calibration Problem," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 663-671, July 1990, doi:10.1109/34.56209
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