This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Vision for Robotic Applications
March 1989 (vol. 11 no. 3)
pp. 291-303

Considers a vision system that uses the echo of a transmitted ultrasonic pulse as the basis for identifying objects. The return of a single pulse from an object generates a three-dimensional acoustical characteristic signature across the aperture of a receiving antenna which can be directly used for object identification. Thus, there is no need to reproduce an accurate visual representation to recognize which of a class of objects is present. Since the signal bandwidth is narrow relative to that of an optical imaging system, faster execution should be possible. The need to remove clutter which can arise in a conventional imaging system, caused by the compression of three dimensions into two, is totally avoided. The authors calculate a fundamental limit (in the Shannon sense) on the number of objects that can be distinguished by an ultrasonic system and show that, for modest signal-to-noise ratios and an object space comparable to the beamwidth, an enormous number of different objects can still, in principle, be resolved.

[1] D. Nitzan, "Development of intelligent robots: achievements and issues,"IEEE J. Robotics Automat., vol. RA-1, no. 1, pp. 3-13, 1985.
[2] M. K. Brown, "Locating object surfaces with an ultrasonic range sensor," inProc. 1985 IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. Automat.
[3] J. S. Schoenwald and J. F. Martin, "Acoustic scanning for robotic range sensing and object pattern recognition," inProc. 1982 IEEE Ultrason. Symp.
[4] R. C. Bryant and R. F. Bogner, "Ultrasonic surface imaging in adverse environments,"IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason., vol. SU-31, pp. 373-390, July 1984.
[5] H. P. Moravec and A. Elfes, "High resolution maps from wide angle sonar," inProc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robotics Automat., 1985, pp. 116-121.
[6] J. M. Richardson, K. A. Marsh, J. S. Schoenwald, and J. F. Martin, "Acoustic imaging of objects in air using a small set of transducers," inProc. 1984 IEEE Ultrason. Symp.
[7] K. A. Marsh, J. M. Richardson, J. F. Martin, and J. S. Schoenwald, "Acoustic imaging in robotics using a small set of transducers," inProc. 4th Int. Conf. Robot Vis. Sensory Cont., 1984.
[8] S. Buckley, "Acoustic inspection of parts using microprocessors,"Proc. Autofact West, CAD/CAM VIII, vol. 1, pp. 571-588, Nov. 17- 20, 1980.
[9] H. J. Landau and H. O. Pollack, "Prolate spheriodal wave functions, Fourier analysis, and uncertainty-III,"Bell Syst. Tech. J, vol. 41, pp. 1295-1336, July 1962.
[10] D. Slepian, "Prolate spheriodal wave functions, Fourier analysis, and uncertainty-V: The discrete case,"Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 57, pp. 1371-1430, May-June 1978.
[11] A. D. Wyner, "Signal design for PAM data transmission to minimize excess bandwidth,"Bell Syst. Tech. J., vol. 57, pp. 3277-3307, Nov. 1978.
[12] R. G. Gallager,Information Theory and Reliable Communication. New York: Wiley, 1972, p. 80.
[13] H. L. Van Trees,Detection, Estimation, and Modulation Theory, Vol. I. New York: Wiley, 1968.
[14] M. G. Kendall,A Course in the Geometry of n Dimensions. New York: Hafner, 1961.
[15] N. H. Blachman, "The closest packing of equal spheres in a larger sphere,"Amer. Math. Month., vol. 70, pp. 526-529, 1963.

Index Terms:
US vision; robot vision; 3D object recognition; pattern recognition; S/N ratio; acoustic imaging; echo; characteristic signature; object identification; acoustic imaging; pattern recognition; picture processing; ultrasonic applications
Citation:
A.S. Acampora, J.H. Winters, "Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Vision for Robotic Applications," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 291-303, March 1989, doi:10.1109/34.21798
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.