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Precision Edge Contrast and Orientation Estimation
November 1988 (vol. 10 no. 6)
pp. 927-937

The contrast and orientation estimation accuracy of several edge operators that have been proposed in the literature is examined both for the noiseless case and in the presence of additive Gaussian noise. The test image is an ideal step edge that has been sampled with a square-aperture grid. The effects of subpixel translations and rotations of the edge on the performance of the operators are studied. It is shown that the effect of subpixel translations of an edge can generate more error than moderate noise levels. Methods with improved results are presented for Sobel angle estimates and the Nevatia-Babu operator, and theoretical noise performance evaluations are also provided. An edge operator based on two-dimensional spatial moments is presented. All methods are compared according to worst-case and RMS error in an ideal noiseless situation and RMS error under various noise levels.

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Index Terms:
2-D spatial moments; pattern analysis; picture processing; edge contrast; orientation estimation; Gaussian noise; square-aperture grid; subpixel translations; Sobel angle estimates; Nevatia-Babu operator; RMS error; pattern recognition; picture processing
E.P. Lyvers, O.R. Mitchell, "Precision Edge Contrast and Orientation Estimation," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 927-937, Nov. 1988, doi:10.1109/34.9114
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