This Article 
   
 Share 
   
 Bibliographic References 
   
 Add to: 
 
Digg
Furl
Spurl
Blink
Simpy
Google
Del.icio.us
Y!MyWeb
 
 Search 
   
2-D Invariant Object Recognition Using Distributed Associative Memory
November 1988 (vol. 10 no. 6)
pp. 811-821

Complex-log conformal mapping is combined with a distributed associative memory to create a system that recognizes objects regardless of changes in rotation or scale. Information recalled from the memorized database is used to classify an object, reconstruct the memorized version of the object, and estimate the magnitude of changes in scale or rotation. The system response is resistant to moderate amounts of noise and occlusion. Several experiments using real gray-scale images are presented to show the feasibility of the approach.

[1] H. A. Simon,The Science of the Artificial, 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1984.
[2] D. Marr,Vision. San Francisco, CA: Freeman, 1982.
[3] T. O. Binford, "Visual perception by computer," inProc. IEEE Conf. Systems and Control, Miami, FL, 1971.
[4] T. Kohonen,Self-Organization and Associative Memory. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1988, p. 132.
[5] L. Massone, G. Sandini, and V. Tagliasco, "Form-invariant topological mapping strategy for 2D shape recognition,"Comput. Vision, Graphics, Image Processing, vol. 30, pp. 169-188, 1985.
[6] C. H. Anderson, P. J. Burt, and G. S. Van Der Wal, "Change detection and tracking using pyramid transform techniques," inProc. SPIE Conf. Intelligence, Robots, and Computer Vision, vol. 579, 1985, pp. 72-78.
[7] D. Casasent and D. Psaltis, "New optical transforms for pattern recognition,"Proc. IEEE, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 77-84, 1977.
[8] A. V. Oppenheim and J. S. Lim, "The importance of phase in signals,"Proc. IEEE, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 529-541, 1981.
[9] R. G. Lane, W. R. Fright, and R. H. Bates, "Direct phase retrieval,"IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Processing, vol. ASSP-35, pp. 520-526, 1987.
[10] O. D. Hebb,The Organization of Behavior. New York: Wiley, 1949.
[11] G. S. Stiles, and D. L. Denq, "On the effect of noise on the Moore-Penrose generalized inverse associative memory,"IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., vol. PAMI-7, no. 3, pp. 358-360, 1985.
[12] H. Bouma, "Visual search and reading: eye movements and functional visual field," inAttention and Performance VII, J. Requin, Ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1978.
[13] E. L. Schwartz, "Spatial-mapping in the Primate sensory projection: Analytical structure and relevance to perception,"Biol. Cybern., vol. 25, 1977.
[14] H. R. Wilson and J. R. Bergen, "A four mechanism model for threshold spatial vision,"Vision Res., vol. 19, pp. 19-32, 1979.
[15] D. Hubel and T. Wiesel, "Brain mechanisms of vision,"Sci. Amer., Oct. 1979.
[16] F. W. Cambell, J. Nachmias, J. Jukes, "Spatial frequency discrimination in human vision,"J. Opt. Soc. Amer., vol. 60, pp. 555-559, 1970.
[17] H. J. Reitboek and J. Altmann, "A model for size-and-rotation-invariant pattern processing in the visual system,"Biol. Cybern., vol. 51, pp. 113-121, 1984.
[18] D.E. Rumelhart and D. McClelland, eds.,Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition, Vols. 1-2, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1986.
[19] J. J. Hopfield, "Neural networks and physical systems with emergent collective computational abilities," inProc. Nat. Acad. Sci., vol. 79, Apr. 1982.
[20] J. A. Anderson, J. W. Silverstein, S. A. Ritz, and R. S. Jones, "Distinctive features, categorical perception, and probability learning: some applications of a neural model,"Psychol. Rev., vol. 84, pp. 413-451, 1977.
[21] R. A. Messner and H. H Szu, "An image processing architecture for real time generation of scale and rotation invariant patterns,"Comput. Vision, Graphics, Image Processing, vol. 31, pp. 50-66, 1985.
[22] S. Case, P. R. Haugen, and O. J. Lokberg, "Multi-facet holographic optical elements for wavefront transformations,"Appl. Opt., vol. 20, pp. 2670-2673, 1981.
[23] I. Chakravarty and H. Freeman, "Characteristic views as a basis for 3-D object recognition," inProc. SPIE Robot Vision., vol. 336, pp. 37-45, 1982.
[24] J. J. Koenderink and A. J. Van Doom, "Internal representation of solid shape with respect to vision,"Biol. Cybern., vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 211-216, 1979.

Index Terms:
2-D invariant object recognition; computerized pattern recognition; complex log conformal mapping; distributed associative memory; database; system response; gray-scale images; computerised pattern recognition; content-addressable storage
Citation:
H. Wechsler, G.L. Zimmerman, "2-D Invariant Object Recognition Using Distributed Associative Memory," IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 811-821, Nov. 1988, doi:10.1109/34.9104
Usage of this product signifies your acceptance of the Terms of Use.