The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.09 - Sept. (2013 vol.12)
pp: 1879-1892
Jeong-Yoon Lee , POSTECH, Pohang
Chansu Yu , Cleveland State University, Cleveland and POSTECH, Pohang
Kang G. Shin , University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Young-Joo Suh , POSTECH, Pohang
Being readily available in most of 802.11 radios, multirate capability appears to be useful as WiFi networks are getting more prevalent and crowded. More specifically, it would be helpful in high-density scenarios because internode distance is short enough to employ high data rates. However, communication at high data rates mandates a large number of hops for a given node pair in a multihop network and thus, can easily be depreciated as per-hop overhead at several layers of network protocol is aggregated over the increased number of hops. This paper presents a novel multihop, multirate adaptation mechanism, called multihop transmission opportunity (MTOP), that allows a frame to be forwarded a number of hops consecutively to minimize the MAC-layer overhead between hops. This seemingly collision-prone nonstop forwarding is proved to be safe via analysis and USRP/GNU Radio-based experiment in this paper. The idea of MTOP is in clear contrast to the conventional opportunistic transmission mechanism, known as TXOP, where a node transmits multiple frames back-to-back when it gets an opportunity in a single-hop WLAN. We conducted an extensive simulation study via OPNET, demonstrating the performance advantage of MTOP under a wide range of network scenarios.
IEEE 802.11 Standards, Spread spectrum communication, Interference, Throughput, Routing, Bit error rate, Sensitivity, multirate routing, Opportunistic communication, wireless multihop networks, medium access control, data rate adaptation
Jeong-Yoon Lee, Chansu Yu, Kang G. Shin, Young-Joo Suh, "Maximizing Transmission Opportunities in Wireless Multihop Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.12, no. 9, pp. 1879-1892, Sept. 2013, doi:10.1109/TMC.2012.159
[1] C. Yu, T. Shen, K.G. Shin, J.-Y. Lee, and Y.-J. Suh, "Multihop Transmission Opportunity in Wireless Multihop Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2010.
[2] Civilian Applications of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (CAUAS, 2007), http:/, 2013.
[3] T. Zajkowski, S. Dunagan, and J. Eilers, "Small UAS Communications Mission," Proc. 11th Biennial USDA Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Conf., 2006.
[4] P. Hui, J. Crowcroft, and E. Yoneki, "BUBBLE Rap: Social-Based Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 241-250, May 2008.
[5] H. Rheingold, Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution. Perseus Book Group, 2002.
[6] K. Seada and C. Perkins, "Social Networks: The Killer App for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks?" Technical Report NRC-TR-2006-010, Nokia, Aug. 2006.
[7] IEEE Standard 802.11-1999, Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, IEEE, 1999.
[8] IEEE Standard 802.11e-2005, Part 11: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: Medium Access Control (MAC) Enhancements for Quality of Service (QoS), IEEE, 2005.
[9] B. Sadeghi, V. Kanodia, A. Sabharwal, and E. Knightly, "Opportunistic Media Access for Multirate Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 27-35, Sept. 2002.
[10] G. Tan and J. Guttag, "Time-Based Fairness Improves Performance in Multi-Rate WLAN," Proc. USENIX Technical Conf., 2004.
[11] I. Tinnirello and S. Choi, "Temporal Fairness Provisioning in Multi-Rate Contention-Based 802.11e WLANs," Proc. IEEE Sixth Int'l Symp. World of Wireless Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), pp. 220-230, June 2005.
[12] J. Bicket, D. Aguayo, S. Biswas, and R. Morris, "Architecture and Evaluation of an Unplanned 802.11b Mesh Network," Proc. ACM MobiCom pp. 31-42, Aug./Sept. 2005.
[13] OPNET Modeler, http:/, 2013.
[14] Universal Software Radio Platform, http:/, 2013.
[15] GNU Radio Project, http://www.gnuradio.orgtrac, 2013.
[16] A. Kamerman and L. Monteban, "WaveLAN-II: A High-Performance Wireless LAN for the Unlicensed Band," Bell Labs Technical J., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 118-133, 1997.
[17] M. Lacage, M.H. Manshaei, and T. Turletti, "IEEE 802.11 Rate Adaptation: A Practical Approach," Proc. ACM Seventh ACM Int'l Symp. Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM), 2004.
[18] A. Akella, G. Judd, S. Seshan, and P. Steenkiste, "Self-Management in Chaotic Wireless Deployments," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 185-199, Aug./Sept. 2005.
[19] G. Holland, N. Vaidya, and P. Bahl, "A Rate-Adaptive MAC Protocol for Multi-Hop Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 236-251, July 2001.
[20] Z. Ji, Y. Yang, J. Zhou, M. Takai, and R. Bagrodia, "Exploiting Medium Access Diversity in Rate Adaptive Wireless LANs," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2004.
[21] S.T. Sheu, Y. Tsai, and J. Chen, "MR2RP: The Multi-Rate and Multi-Range Routing Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," Wireless Networks, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 165-177, 2003.
[22] H. Zhai and Y. Fang, "Physical Carrier Sensing and Spatial Reuse in Multirate and Multihop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1-12, Apr. 2006.
[23] B. Awerbuch, D. Holmer, and H. Rubens, "The Medium Time Metric: High Throughput Route Selection in Multi-Rate Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 11, pp. 253-266, 2006.
[24] R. Draves, J. Padhye, and B. Zill, "Routing in Multi-Radio, Multi-Hop Wireless Mesh Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp.114-128. Sept./Oct. 2004.
[25] Strix Systems, datasheets StrixWhitepaper_Multihop.pdf, Mar. 2008.
[26] C.E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, "Highly Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing (DSDV) for Mobile Computers," ACM SIGCOMM Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 234-244, 1994.
[27] D. Johnson and D. Maltz, "Dynamic Source Routing in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks," Mobile Computing, T. Imielinski and H. Korth, eds., Kluwer Academic, 1996.
[28] S. Biswas and R. Morris, "Opportunistic Routing in Multi-Hop Wireless Networks," Proc. Second Workshop Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets-II), 2003.
[29] M. Zorzi and R. Rao, "Geographic Random Forwarding (GeRaF) for Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Energy and Latency Performance," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 349-365, Oct.-Dec. 2003.
[30] K. Jamieson, H. Balakrishnan, and Y.C. Tay, "Sift: A MAC Protocol for Event-Driven Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Third European Workshop Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSN), 2006.
[31] T. Li, Q. Ni, D. Malone, D. Leith, Y. Xiao, and T. Turletti, "Aggregation with Fragment Retransmission for Very High-Speed WLANs," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networks, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 591-604, Apr. 2009.
[32] M. Heusse, F. Rousseau, G. Berger-Sabbatel, and A. Duda, "Performance Anomaly of 802.11b," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, vol. 2, pp. 836-843, Mar./Apr. 2003.
[33] "Orinoco 11b Client PC Card Spec.," 11bpccard.pdf, 2003.
[34] K. Marquess, "Physical Model Sub-Group Discussion and Questions," Technical Report IEEE 802.15/138R0, 1999.
[35] IEEE Standard 802.15.2-2003, Part 15.2: Coexistence of Wireless Personal Area Networks with Other Wireless Devices Operating in Unlicensed Frequency Bands, IEEE, 2003.
[36] C. Yu, K.G. Shin, and L. Song, "Link-Layer Salvaging for Making Routing Progress in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 242-254, May 2005.
[37] M. Bertocco, G. Gamba, and A. Sona, "Experimental Optimization of CCA Thresholds in Wireless Sensor Networks in the Presence of Interference," Proc. IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Europe, 2007.
[38] R. Gummadi, D. Wetherall, B. Greenstein, and S. Seshan, "Understanding and Mitigating the Impact of RF Interference on 802.11 Networks," Proc. ACM Special Interest Group on Data Comm. (SIGCOMM '07), pp. 385-396, Aug. 2007.
[39] S. Narayanaswamy, V. Kawadia, R.S. Sreenivas, and P.R. Kumar, "Power Control in Ad-Hoc Networks: Theory, Architecture, Algorithm and Implementation of the COMPOW Protocol," Proc. European Wireless Conf., Feb. 2002.
[40] A. Jow, C. Schurgers, and D. Palmer, "CalRadio: A Portable, Flexible 802.11 Wireless Research Platform," Proc. ACM First Int'l Workshop System Evaluation for Mobile Platforms (MobiEval), pp. 49-54, June 2007.
[41] K.A. Jamieson, "The SoftPHY Abstraction: From Packets to Symbols in Wireless Network Design," PhD dissertation, Massachusetts Inst. Tech., June 2008.
[42] GNU Radio Source, radio/ trunk/usrp/fpga/sdr_libadc_interface.v , 2013.
[43] J. Lee, W. Kim, S.J. Lee, D. Jo, J. Ryu, T. Kwon, and Y. Choi, "An Experimental Study on the Capture Effect in 802.11a Networks," Proc. Second ACM Int'l Workshop Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental Evaluation and Characterization (WinTECH), pp. 19-26, Sept. 2007.
[44] BBN ADROIT Project,, 2013.
[45] R. Dhar, G. George, A. Malani, and P. Steenkiste, "Supporting Integrated MAC and PHY Software Development for the USRP SDR," Proc. IEEE Workshop Networking Technologies for Software Defined Radio (SDR) Networks, 2006.
[46] T. Schmid, O. Sekkat, and M.B. Srivastava, "An Experimental Study of Network Performance Impact of Increased Latency in Software Defined Radios," Proc. ACM Second Int'l Workshop Wireless Network Testbeds, Experimental Evaluation and Characterization (WinTECH), 2007.
[47] J. Broch, D.A. Maltz, D.B. Johnson, Y.-C. Hu, and J. Jetcheva, "A Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 1998.
[48] R. Jain, D. Chiu, and W. Hawe, "A Quantitative Measure of Fairness and Discrimination for Resource Allocation in Shared Systems," Technical Report TR-301, Digital Equipment Corp., Aug. 1984.
[49] R.J. Punnoose, P.V. Nikitin, and D.D. Stancil, "Efficient Simulation of Ricean Fading within a Packet Simulator," Proc. IEEE 52nd Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC-Fall), 2000.
[50] Z. Chen, X. Yang, and N.H. Vaidya, "Dynamic Spatial Backoff in Fading Environments," Proc. IEEE Fifth Int'l Conf. Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), 2008.
[51] J. Kim, S. Kim, S. Choi, and D. Qiao, "CARA: Collision-Aware Rate Adaptation for IEEE 802.11 WLANs," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2006.
130 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool