The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.09 - Sept. (2013 vol.12)
pp: 1842-1852
Yunchuan Wei , Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing
Kai Zeng , University of Michigan at Dearborn, Dearborn
Prasant Mohapatra , University of California at Davis, Davis
ABSTRACT
Generating a shared key between two parties from the wireless channel is an increasingly interesting topic. The process of obtaining information from the wireless channel is called channel probing. Previous key generation schemes probe the channel at a preset and constant rate without any consideration of channel variation or probing efficiency. To satisfy the usersâ requirements for key generation rate (KGR) and to use the wireless channel efficiently, we propose an adaptive channel probing scheme based on the proportional-integral-derivative controller, which is used to tune the probing rate. Moreover, we use the Lempel-Ziv complexity to estimate the entropy rate of channel statistics (received signal strength), which is considered as an indicator of probing efficiency. The experimental results show that the controller can dynamically tune the probing rate and, meanwhile, to achieve a user desired KGR. It stabilizes the KGR at the desired value with error below 1 bit/s. Besides, channel probing process is efficient under different user velocities, motion types, and sites.
INDEX TERMS
Wireless communication, Entropy, Correlation, Probes, Channel estimation, Communication system security, Privacy, PID controller, Wireless channel probing, shared key generation, information theory
CITATION
Yunchuan Wei, Kai Zeng, Prasant Mohapatra, "Adaptive Wireless Channel Probing for Shared Key Generation Based on PID Controller", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.12, no. 9, pp. 1842-1852, Sept. 2013, doi:10.1109/TMC.2012.144
REFERENCES
[1] W. Diffie and M. Hellman, "New Directions in Cryptography," IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 644-654, Nov. 1976.
[2] Y. Wei, K. Zeng, and P. Mohapatra, "Adaptive Wireless Channel Probing for Shared Key Generation," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Apr. 2011.
[3] S. Jana, S.N. Premnath, M. Clark, S.K. Kasera, N. Patwari, and S.V. Krishnamurthy, "On the Effectiveness of Secret Key Extraction from Wireless Signal Strength in Real Environments," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 321-332, 2009.
[4] S. Mathur, W. Trappe, N. Mandayam, C. Ye, and A. Reznik, "Radio-Telepathy: Extracting a Secret Key from an Unauthenticated Wireless Channel," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 128-139, 2008.
[5] K. Zeng, D. Wu, C.A., and P. Mohapatra, "Exploiting Multiple-Antenna Diversity for Shared Secret Key Generation in Wireless Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1-9, Mar. 2010.
[6] N. Patwari, J. Croft, S. Jana, and S. Kasera, "High-Rate Uncorrelated Bit Extraction for Shared Secret Key Generation from Channel Measurements," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 17-30, Jan. 2010.
[7] T.S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall, 2001.
[8] C. Chen and M. Jensen, "Secret Key Establishment Using Temporally and Spatially Correlated Wireless Channel Coefficients," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 205-215, Feb. 2011.
[9] J. Thomas, Elements of Information Theory. John Wiley and Sons, 1991.
[10] A. Lempel and J. Ziv, "On the Complexity of Finite Sequences," IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 75-81, Jan. 1976.
[11] J.-L. Blanc, N. Schmidt, L. Bonnier, L. Pezard, and A. Lesne, "Quantifying Neural Correlations Using Lempel-Ziv Complexity," Proc. NEUROCOMP Conf., 2008.
[12] T. Aono, K. Higuchi, M. Taromaru, T. Ohira, and H. Sasaoka, "Wireless Secret Key Generation Exploiting the Reactance-Domain Scalar Response of Multipath Fading Channels: RSSI Interleaving Scheme," Proc. European Conf. Wireless Technology, pp. 173-176, Oct. 2005.
[13] B. Azimi-Sadjadi, A. Kiayias, A. Mercado, and B. Yener, "Robust Key Generation from Signal Envelopes in Wireless Networks," Proc. 14th ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS '07), pp. 401-410, 2007.
[14] R. Wilson, D. Tse, and R. Scholtz, "Channel Identification: Secret Sharing Using Reciprocity in Ultrawideband Channels," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Ultra-Wideband, pp. 270-275, Sept. 2007.
[15] U.M. Maurer, "Secret Key Agreement by Public Discussion from Common Information," IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 733-742, May 1993.
[16] G. Brassard and L. Salvail, "Secret-Key Reconciliation by Public Discussion," Proc. Workshop the Theory and Application of Cryptographic Techniques on Advances in Cryptology (EUROCRYPT '93). pp. 410-423, 1994.
[17] C. Cachin and U.M. Maurer, "Linking Information Reconciliation and Privacy Amplification," J. Cryptology, vol. 10, pp. 97-110, 1997.
[18] H. Koorapaty, A. Hassan, and S. Chennakeshu, "Secure Information Transmission for Mobile Radio," IEEE Comm. Letters, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 52-55, Feb. 2000.
[19] C.H. Bennett, G. Brassard, C. Crkpeau, and U.M. Maurer, "Generalized Privacy Amplification," IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 1915-1923, Nov. 1995.
[20] A. Khisti, S.N. Diggavi, and G.W. Wornell, "Secret-Key Generation Using Correlated Sources and Channels," IEEE Trans. Information Forensics and Security, Sept. 2011.
[21] A. Khisti and S.N. Diggavi, "A Remark on Secret-Key Generation over Correlated Fading Channels," Proc. Workshop Physical-Layer Security, Dec. 2011.
[22] W.C. Jakes, Microwave Mobile Communications. Wiley-IEEE, 1994.
[23] J. Wallace and R. Sharma, "Automatic Secret Keys from Reciprocal MIMO Wireless Channels: Measurement and Analysis," IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 381-392, Sept. 2010.
[24] "Wireshark," http://en.wikipedia. org/ wikiWireshark, 2013.
[25] J. Postel, "DARPA Internet Program Protocol Specification," IETF RFC 792, Sept. 1981.
[26] S.P. Strong, R. Koberle, d.R. van Steveninck, and W. Bialek, "Entropy and Information in Neural Spike Trains," Phys. Rev. Letters, vol. 80, 1998.
[27] J.M. Amigo, J. Szczepanski, E. Wajnryb, and M.V. Sanchez-Vives, "Estimating the Entropy Rate of Spike Trains via Lempel-Ziv Complexity," Neural Computation, vol. 16, pp. 717-736, 2004.
[28] R. Badii and A. Politi, Complexity: Hierarchical Structures and Scaling in Physics. Cambridge Univ., 1997.
[29] J.B. Ziegler and N.B. Nichols, "Optimum Settings for Automatic Controllers," ASME Trans., vol. 64, pp. 759-768, 1942.
[30] R. Merkle, "Secrecy, Authentication, and Public Key Systems," PhD thesis, Stanford Univ., 1979.
33 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool