The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.03 - March (2013 vol.12)
pp: 581-595
E. Talipov , Dept. of Comput. Sci., Yonsei Univ., Seoul, South Korea
Yohan Chon , Dept. of Comput. Sci., Yonsei Univ., Seoul, South Korea
Hojung Cha , Dept. of Comput. Sci., Yonsei Univ., Seoul, South Korea
With the growing number of smartphone users, peer-to-peer ad hoc content sharing is expected to occur more often. Thus, new content sharing mechanisms should be developed as traditional data delivery schemes are not efficient for content sharing due to the sporadic connectivity between smartphones. To accomplish data delivery in such challenging environments, researchers have proposed the use of store-carry-forward protocols, in which a node stores a message and carries it until a forwarding opportunity arises through an encounter with other nodes. Most previous works in this field have focused on the prediction of whether two nodes would encounter each other, without considering the place and time of the encounter. In this paper, we propose discover-predict-deliver as an efficient content sharing scheme for delay-tolerant smartphone networks. In our proposed scheme, contents are shared using the mobility information of individuals. Specifically, our approach employs a mobility learning algorithm to identify places indoors and outdoors. A hidden Markov model is used to predict an individual's future mobility information. Evaluation based on real traces indicates that with the proposed approach, 87 percent of contents can be correctly discovered and delivered within 2 hours when the content is available only in 30 percent of nodes in the network. We implement a sample application on commercial smartphones, and we validate its efficiency to analyze the practical feasibility of the content sharing application. Our system approximately results in a 2 percent CPU overhead and reduces the battery lifetime of a smartphone by 15 percent at most.
smart phones, ad hoc networks, delay tolerant networks, hidden Markov models, learning (artificial intelligence), mobile computing, peer-to-peer computing, protocols, battery lifetime, smartphone-based delay-tolerant network, peer-to-peer ad hoc content sharing, data delivery, sporadic connectivity, store-carry-forward protocol, forwarding opportunity, discover-predict-deliver, mobility information, mobility learning algorithm, hidden Markov model, CPU overhead, Routing, Routing protocols, Peer to peer computing, Accelerometers, Mobile computing, Global Positioning System, IEEE 802.11 Standards, pervasive computing, Store and forward networks, wireless communication, location dependent and sensitive
E. Talipov, Yohan Chon, Hojung Cha, "Content Sharing over Smartphone-Based Delay-Tolerant Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.12, no. 3, pp. 581-595, March 2013, doi:10.1109/TMC.2012.21
[1] T3I Group LLC, http:/, 2010.
[2] A. Vahdat and D. Becker, "Epidemic Routing for Partially Connected Ad Hoc Networks," technical report, Dept. of Computer Science, Duke Univ., Sept. 2000.
[3] A. Balasubramanian, B.N. Levine, and A. Venkataramani, "DTN Routing as a Resource Allocation Problem," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 373-384, 2007.
[4] R.C. Shah, S. Roy, S. Jain, and W. Brunette, "Data Mules: Modeling a Three-Tier Architecture for Sparse Sensor Networks," Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks J., vol. 1, pp. 215-233, Sept. 2003.
[5] A. Lindgren, A. Doria, and O. Schelen, "Probabilistic Routing in Intermittently Connected Networks," SIGMOBILE Mobile Computer Comm. Rev., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 19-20, 2003.
[6] C. Liu and J. Wu, "An Optimal Probabilistic Forwarding Protocol in Delay Tolerant Networks," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 14, 2009.
[7] J. Wu, M. Lu, and F. Li, "Utility-Based Opportunistic Routing in Multi-Hop Wireless Networks," Proc. 28th Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '08), pp. 470-477, 2008.
[8] T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and C.S. Raghavendra, "Spray and Wait: An Efficient Routing Scheme for Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Workshop Delay-Tolerant Networking (WDTN '05), pp. 252-259, 2005.
[9] T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and C. Raghavendra, "Efficient Routing in Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks: The Single-Copy Case," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 63-76, Feb. 2008.
[10] T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis, and C.S. Raghavendra, "Efficient Routing in Intermittently Connected Mobile Networks: The Multiple-Copy Case," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 16, pp. 77-90, Feb. 2008.
[11] I. Cardei, C. Liu, J. Wu, and Q. Yuan, "DTN Routing with Probabilistic Trajectory Prediction," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Wireless Algorithms, Systems, and Applications (WASA '08,), pp. 40-51, 2008.
[12] Q. Yuan, I. Cardei, and J. Wu, "Predict and Relay: An Efficient Routing in Disruption-Tolerant Networks," Proc. 10th ACM MobiHoc, pp. 95-104, 2009.
[13] E.M. Daly and M. Haahr, "Social Network Analysis for Routing in Disconnected Delay-tolerant MANETs," Proc. Eighth ACM MobiHoc, pp. 32-40, 2007.
[14] N.B. Chang and M. Liu, "Controlled Flooding Search in a Large Network," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 436-449, Apr. 2007.
[15] C. Avin and C. Brito, "Efficient and Robust Query Processing in Dynamic Environments Using Random Walk Techniques," Proc. Third Int'l Symp. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN '04), pp. 277-286, 2004.
[16] M. Pitkanen, T. Karkkainen, J. Greifenberg, and J. Ott, "Searching for Content in Mobile DTNs," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. (PERCOM '09), pp. 1-10, 2009.
[17] I. Smith, J. Tabert, T. Wild, A. Lamarca, A. Lamarca, Y. Chawathe, Y. Chawathe, S. Consolvo, S. Consolvo, J. Hightower, J. Scott, T. Sohn, J. Howard, J. Hughes, F. Potter, P. Powledge, G. Borriello, and B. Schilit, "Place Lab: Device Positioning Using Radio Beacons in the Wild," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing (PERCOM '05), pp. 116-133, 2005.
[18] Z. Ghahramani, "An Introduction to Hidden Markov Models and Bayesian Networks," Hidden Markov Models: Applications in Computer Vision, pp. 9-42, World Scientific, 2002.
[19] M.C. Gonzalez, C.A. Hidalgo, and A.-L. Barabasi, "Understanding Individual Human Mobility Patterns," Nature, vol. 453, pp. 779-782, 2008.
[20] V. Cerf, S. Burleigh, A. Hooke, L. Torgerson, R. Durst, K. Scott, K. Fall, and H. Weiss, "Delay-Tolerant Network Architecture," RFC4838, Jan. 2007.
[21] Y. Chon and H. Cha, "LifeMap: Smartphone-Based Context Provider for Location-Based Service," IEEE Pervasive Computing Magazine, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 58-67, Apr.-June 2011.
[22] Y. Chon, E. Talipov, and H. Cha, "Autonomous Management of Personalized Location Provider for Mobile Services," IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part C: Application and Rev., doi: 10.1109/TSMCC.2011.2131129.
[23] M. Kourogi and T. Kurata, "Personal Positioning Based on Walking Locomotion Analysis with Self-Contained Sensors and a Wearable Camera," Proc. IEEE/ACM Second Int'l Symp. Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR '03), p. 103, 2003.
[24] T. Sørensen, "A Method of Establishing Groups of Equal Amplitude in Plant Sociology Based on Similarity of Species and Its Application to Analyses of the Vegetation on Danish Commons," Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1-34, 1948.
[25] F. Ekman, A. Keränen, J. Karvo, and J. Ott, "Working Day Movement Model," Proc. First ACM SIGMOBILE Workshop Mobility Models, pp. 33-40, 2008.
[26] "Google Projects for Android," http:/, 2010.
[27] D.J. Klein, J. Hespanha, and U. Madhow, "A Reaction-Diffusion Model for Epidemic Routing in Sparsely Connected MANETs," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2010.
[28] S.Y. Ni, Y.C. Tseng, Y.S. Chen, and J.P. Sheu, "The Broadcast Storm Problem in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network," Proc. ACM/IEEE MobiCom, pp. 151-162, 1999.
[29] G. Cugola and M. Migliavacca, "A Context and Content-Based Routing Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks," Proc. Sixth European Conf. Wireless Sensor Networks (EWSN '09), pp. 69-85, 2009.
[30] P. Juang, H. Oki, Y. Wang, M. Martonosi, L.S. Peh, and D. Rubenstein, "Energy-Efficient Computing for Wildlife Tracking: Design Tradeoffs and Early Experiences with ZebraNet," SIGARCH Computer Architect News, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 96-107, 2002.
[31] W. Gao, Q. Li, B. Zhao, and G. Cao, "Multicasting in Delay Tolerant Networks: A Social Network Perspective," Proc. 10th ACM MobiHoc, 2009.
[32] Q. Li, S. Zhu, and G. Cao, "Routing in Socially Selfish Delay Tolerant Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2010.
[33] S. Hong, I. Rhee, S.J. Kim, K. Lee, and S. Chong, "Routing Performance Analysis of Human-driven Delay Tolerant Networks Using the Truncated Lvy Walk Model," Proc. First ACM SIGMOBILE Workshop Mobility Models (Mobility Models '08), pp. 25-32, 2008.
[34] D.H. Kim, Y. Kim, D. Estrin, and M.B. Srivastava, "SensLoc: Sensing Everyday Places and Paths Using Less Energy," Proc. Eighth ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '10), pp. 43-56, 2010.
[35] J. Hightower, S. Consolvo, A. Lamarca, I. Smith, and J. Hughes, "Learning and Recognizing the Places We Go," Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Ubiquitous Computing, pp. 159-176, 2005.
[36] D.H. Kim, J. Hightower, R. Govindan, and D. Estrin, "Discovering Semantically Meaningful Places from Pervasive RF Beacons," Proc. 11th Int'l Conf. Ubiquitous Computing (Ubicomp '09), pp. 21-30, 2009.
[37] M.B. Kjaergaard, J. Langdal, T. Godsk, and T. Toftkjaer, "Entracked: Energy-Efficient Robust Position Tracking for Mobile Devices," Proc. ACM MobiSys, pp. 221-234, 2009.
[38] I. Constandache, S. Gaonkar, M. Sayler, R.R. Choudhury, and O. Cox, "Enloc: Energy-Efficient Localization for Mobile Phones," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 2716-2720, 2009.
[39] Y. Ma, R. Hankins, and D. Racz, "iLoc: A Framework for Incremental Location-State Acquisition and Prediction Based on Mobile Sensors," Proc. 18th ACM Conf. Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM '09), pp. 1367-1376, 2009.
[40] G. Liu and G. Maguire, "A Class of Mobile Motion Prediction Algorithms for Wireless Mobile Computing and Communications," Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 1, pp. 113-121, 1996.
[41] W. Gao and G. Cao, "Fine-Grained Mobility Characterization: Steady and Transient State Behaviors," Proc. Eleventh ACM Int'l Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, pp. 61-70, 2010.
[42] W.T. Poon and E. Chan, "Traffic Management in Wireless ATM Networks Using a Hierarchical Neural-Network Based Prediction Algorithm," Proc. 15th Int'l Conf. Computer and their Applications, Mar. 2000.
[43] J. Biesterfeld, E. Ennigrou, and K. Jobmann, "Location Prediction in Mobile Networks with Neural Networks," Proc. Int'l Workshop Applications of Neural Networks to Telecomm. (IWANNT), pp. 207-214, 1997.
[44] A.J. Nicholson and B.D. Noble, "BreadCrumbs: Forecasting Mobile Connectivity," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 46-57, 2008.
[45] P. Hui, J. Crowcroft, and E. Yoneki, "BUBBLE Rap: Social-Based Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2008.
[46] A. Chaintreau, P. Hui, J. Scott, R. Gass, J. Crowcroft, and C. Diot, "Impact of Human Mobility on Opportunistic Forwarding Algorithms," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 606-620, June 2007.
[47] J. Su, J. Scott, P. Hui, J. Crowcroft, E. Lara, C. Diot, A. Goel, M. Lim, and E. Upton, "Haggle: Seamless Networking for Mobile Applications," Proc. Ninth Int'l Conf. Ubiquitous Computing, pp. 391-408, Sept. 2007.
[48] V. Lenders, G. Karlsson, and M. May, "Wireless Ad Hoc Podcasting," Proc. IEEE CS Fourth Ann. Conf. Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks, pp. 273-283, June 2007.
[49] Y. Chon, E. Talipov, H. Shin, and H. Cha, "Mobility Prediction Based Smartphone Energy Optimization for Everyday Location Monitoring," Proc. Ninth ACM Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '11), 2011.
29 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool