The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.03 - March (2013 vol.12)
pp: 542-555
H. Adam , Mobile Syst. Group, Univ. of Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt am Worthersee, Austria
E. Yanmaz , Mobile Syst. Group, Univ. of Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt am Worthersee, Austria
C. Bettstetter , Mobile Syst. Group, Univ. of Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt am Worthersee, Austria
ABSTRACT
Several communication protocols and applications require a node to know how many neighboring nodes exhibiting a certain attribute it has. Conventionally, such neighbor information is obtained by explicit message exchange between nodes, which is reliable but inefficient in densely connected networks in terms of overhead and delay. An alternative approach is to perform an estimation of the neighbor cardinality using probabilistic methods. This paper pursues such an approach by proposing neighbor cardinality estimators that require no coordination among polled nodes but are based on a simple random access scheme with busy tones, where the number of empty slots is exploited to infer about the neighbor cardinality. We compare three estimators with different levels of adaptability and feedback from the query node and discuss their suitability for IEEE 802.11 and low power sensors. Performance is studied in terms of estimation accuracy and delay.
INDEX TERMS
wireless LAN, estimation theory, probability, protocols, estimation accuracy, contention-based estimation, communication protocol, neighboring node, message exchange, network overhead, network delay, neighbor cardinality estimation, probabilistic method, random access scheme, busy tone, query node, IEEE 802.11, low power sensor, Estimation, Accuracy, Delay, Mobile computing, Protocols, Radiofrequency identification, Approximation methods, RFID, Neighbor cardinality, estimation protocols, slotted random access, degree distribution
CITATION
H. Adam, E. Yanmaz, C. Bettstetter, "Contention-Based Estimation of Neighbor Cardinality", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.12, no. 3, pp. 542-555, March 2013, doi:10.1109/TMC.2012.19
REFERENCES
[1] Z.J. Haas, J.Y. Halpern, and L. Li, "Gossip-Based Ad Hoc Routing," IEEE/ACM Trans. Networking, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 479-491, June 2006.
[2] M. Mauve, A. Widmer, and H. Hartenstein, "A Survey on Position-Based Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Network, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 30-39, Nov. 2001.
[3] Y. Sasson, D. Cavin, and A. Schiper, "Probabilistic Broadcast for Flooding in Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC), pp. 1124-1130, 2003.
[4] B. Williams and T. Camp, "Comparison of Broadcast Techniques for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 194-205, June 2002.
[5] M. Zúñiga and B. Krishnamachari, "Optimal Transmission Radius for Flooding in Large Scale Sensor Networks," Proc. Int'l Conf. Distributed Computing Systems Workshops, May 2003.
[6] P. Santi, "Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 37, pp. 164-194, Mar. 2005.
[7] B. Chen, K. Jamieson, H. Balakrishnan, and R. Morris, "Span: An Energy-Efficient Coordination Algorithm for Topology Maintenance in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks," Wireless Networks, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 481-494, Sept. 2002.
[8] K. Kar, S. Sarkar, and L. Tassiulas, "Achieving Proportional Fairness Using Local Information in ALOHA Networks," IEEE Trans. Automatic Control, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1858-1863, Oct. 2004.
[9] Y. Gao, K. Wu, and F. Li, "Analysis on the Redundancy of Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Wireless Sensor Network and Applications (WSNA), Sept. 2003.
[10] J.N. Laneman, D.N.C. Tse, and G.W. Wornell, "Cooperative Diversity in Wireless Networks: Efficient Protocols and Outage Behavior," IEEE J. Select. Areas Comm., vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 3062-3080, Dec. 2004.
[11] H. Adam, W. Elmenreich, C. Bettstetter, and S.M. Senouci, "CoRe-MAC: A MAC-Protocol for Cooperative Relaying in Wireless Networks," Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM, Dec. 2009.
[12] A. Cerpa and D. Estrin, "ASCENT: Adaptive Self-Configuring Sensor Networks Topologies," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 272-285, July/Aug. 2004.
[13] T. Li, S. Wu, S. Chen, and M. Yang, "Energy Efficient Algorithms for the RFID Estimation Problem," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2010.
[14] M. Kodialam and T. Nandgopal, "Fast and Reliable Estimation Schemes in RFID Systems," Proc. ACM MobiCom, Sept. 2006.
[15] M. Kodialam, T. Nandgopal, and W.C. Lau, "Anonymous Tracking Using RFID Tags," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, May 2007.
[16] W.-K. Sze, W.-C. Lau, and O.-C. Yue, "Fast RFID Counting under Unreliable Radio Channels," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm. (ICC), June 2009.
[17] H. Han, B. Sheng, C.C. Tan, Q. Li, W. Mao, and S. Lu, "Counting RFID Tags Efficiently and Anonymously," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2010.
[18] C. Qian, H. Ngan, and Y. Liu, "Cardinality Estimation for Large-Scale RFID Systems," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2010.
[19] B. Sheng, Q. Li, and W. Mao, "Efficient Continuous Scanning in RFID Systems," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2010.
[20] G. Brandner, U. Schilcher, M. Gyarmati, and C. Bettstetter, "Non-Colliding First Messages in Slotted ALOHA: Further Insights Toward a Practical Solution," Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC-Spring), Apr. 2009.
[21] H. Adam, E. Yanmaz, W. Elmenreich, and C. Bettstetter, "Contention-Based Neighborhood Estimation," Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf. (VTC-Spring), May 2010.
[22] L. Xie, B. Sheng, C.C. Tan, H. Han, Q. Li, and D. Chen, "Efficient Tag Identification in Mobile RFID Systems," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2010.
[23] A. Krohn, M. Beigl, and S. Wendhack, "SDJS: Efficient Statistics in Wireless Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Network Protocols (ICNP), Oct. 2004.
[24] L.M. Leemis and K.S. Trivedi, "A Comparison of Approximate Interval Estimators for the Bernoulli Parameter," The Am. Statistician, vol. 50, pp. 63-68, 1996.
[25] C.R. Rao, Linear Statistical Inference and Its Applications, second ed. John Wiley & Sons, 1973.
[26] J.R. Phillips, "Online Curve Fitting and Surface Fitting at Zunzun.Com," http:/zunzun.com, Sept. 2010.
[27] H. Adam, E. Yanmaz, C. Bettstetter, M. Kodialam, and T. Nandgopal, "Erratum to 'Anonymous Tracking Using RFID Tags' [INFOCOM 2007]," technical report, Univ. Klagenfurt, Nov. 2011.
[28] IEEE Std 802.11g - Amendment 4: Further Higher Data Rate Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band, IEEE, 2003.
[29] Infineon, TDA 5250 D2 Data Sheet, July 2002.
[30] A. Papoulis and S.U. Pillai, Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes, fourth ed. McGraw-Hill, 2002.
[31] L. Held, Methoden der statistischen Inferenz: Likelihood und Bayes. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, 2008.
37 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool