The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.01 - Jan. (2013 vol.12)
pp: 65-77
A. K. M. Mahtab Hossain , Internet Educ. & Res. Lab. (intERLab), Asian Inst. of Technol. (AIT), Khlong Luang, Thailand
Yunye Jin , Inst. for Infocomm Res., A*STAR (Agency for Sci., Technol. & Res.), Singapore, Singapore
Wee-Seng Soh , Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Nat. Univ. of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
Hien Nguyen Van , Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA
ABSTRACT
Fingerprint-based methods are widely adopted for indoor localization purpose because of their cost-effectiveness compared to other infrastructure-based positioning systems. However, the popular location fingerprint, Received Signal Strength (RSS), is observed to differ significantly across different devices' hardware even under the same wireless conditions. We derive analytically a robust location fingerprint definition, the Signal Strength Difference (SSD), and verify its performance experimentally using a number of different mobile devices with heterogeneous hardware. Our experiments have also considered both Wi-Fi and Bluetooth devices, as well as both Access-Point(AP)-based localization and Mobile-Node (MN)-assisted localization. We present the results of two well-known localization algorithms (K Nearest Neighbor and Bayesian Inference) when our proposed fingerprint is used, and demonstrate its robustness when the testing device differs from the training device. We also compare these SSD-based localization algorithms' performance against that of two other approaches in the literature that are designed to mitigate the effects of mobile node hardware variations, and show that SSD-based algorithms have better accuracy.
INDEX TERMS
Robustness, Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11 Standards, Mobile handsets, Wireless communication, heterogeneous devices, Location fingerprint, signal strength difference (SSD), Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, indoor localization, positioning system
CITATION
A. K. M. Mahtab Hossain, Yunye Jin, Wee-Seng Soh, Hien Nguyen Van, "SSD: A Robust RF Location Fingerprint Addressing Mobile Devices' Heterogeneity", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.12, no. 1, pp. 65-77, Jan. 2013, doi:10.1109/TMC.2011.243
REFERENCES
[1] M. Hossain, H. Nguyen Van, Y. Jin, and W.-S. Soh, "Indoor Localization Using Multiple Wireless Technologies," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), http://www.ece.nus.edu.sg/stfpage/elesohws mass07.pdf, Oct. 2007.
[2] H. Krim and M. Viberg, "Two Decades of Array Signal Processing Research: The Parametric Approach," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 13, pp. 67-94, 1996.
[3] P. Tao, A. Rudys, A.M. Ladd, and D.S. Wallach, "Wireless LAN Location-Sensing for Security Applications," Proc. Second ACM Workshop Wireless security (WiSe '03), pp. 11-20, Sept. 2003.
[4] A. Haeberlen, E. Flannery, A.M. Ladd, A. Rudys, D.S. Wallach, and L.E. Kavraki, "Practical Robust Localization over Large-Scale 802.11 Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 70-84, 2004.
[5] M.B. Kjærgaard and C.V. Munk, "Hyperbolic Location Fingerprinting: A Calibration-Free Solution for Handling Differences in Signal Strength," Proc. IEEE Sixth Ann. Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. (PerCom '08), Mar. 2008.
[6] K. Yedavalli, B. Krishnamachari, S. Ravula, and B. Srinivasan, "Ecolocation: A Sequence Based Technique for RF Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. Fourth Int'l Symp. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (ISPN '05), Apr. 2005.
[7] P. Bahl and V.N. Padmanabhan, "RADAR: An In-Building RF-Based User Location and Tracking System," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 775-784, Mar. 2000.
[8] J. Bardwell, "A Discussion Clarifying Often-Misused 802.11 WLAN Terminologies," http://www.connect802.com/ download/techpubs/ 2004you_believe_D100201.pdf, 2011.
[9] M. Hossain and W.S. Soh, "A Comprehensive Study of Bluetooth Signal Parameters for Localization," Proc. IEEE 18th Int'l Symp. Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Comm. (PIMRC), http://www. ece.nus.edu.sg/stfpage/elesohws pimrc07.pdf, Sept. 2007.
[10] T.S. Rappaport, Wireless Communication - Principles and Practice. Prentice Hall, 1996.
[11] K. Kaemarungsi and P. Krishnamurthy, "Modeling of Indoor Positioning Systems Based on Location Fingerprinting," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1012-1022, Mar. 2004.
[12] C. Chang and A. Sahai, "Estimation Bounds for Localization," Proc. IEEE First Ann. Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON '04), pp. 415-424, Oct. 2004.
[13] S.R. Saunders, Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems. John Wiley & Sons, 1999.
[14] M.S. Gast, 802.11 Wireless Networks: The Definitive Guide. O'Reilly & Assoc., 2002.
[15] R. Want, A. Hopper, V. Falco, and J. Gibbons, "The Active Badge Location System," ACM Trans. Information Systems, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 91-102, Jan. 1992.
[16] A. Ward, A. Jones, and A. Hopper, "A New Location Technique for the Active Office," IEEE Personal Comm., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 42-47, Oct. 1997.
[17] N. Priyantha, A. Chakraborty, and H. Balakrishnan, "The Cricket Location-Support System," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 32-43, Aug. 2000.
[18] P. Castro, P. Chiu, T. Kremenek, and R.R. Muntz, "A Probabilistic Room Location Service for wIreless Networked Environments," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp '01), pp. 18-34, Sept. 2001.
[19] X. Li, "RSS-Based Location Estimation with Unknown Pathloss Model," IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 3626-3633, 2006.
[20] Y. Gwon, R. Jain, and T. Kawahara, "Robust Indoor Location Estimation of Stationary and Mobile Users," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1032-1043, Mar. 2004.
[21] M.A. Youssef, A. Agrawala, and A.U. Shankar, "WLAN Location Determination via Clustering and Probability Distributions," Proc. IEEE First Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. (PERCOM '03), Mar. 2003.
[22] E. Elnahrawy, X. Li, and R.P. Martin, "The Limits of Localization Using Signal Strength: A Comparative Study," Proc. IEEE First Ann. Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON '04), 2004.
[23] A. Ladd, K. Bekris, G. Marceau, A. Rudys, L. Kavraki, and D. Wallach, "Robotics-Based Location Sensing Using Wireless Ethernet," Technical Report TR02-393, Dept. of Computer Science, Rice Univ., 2002.
[24] T. Roos, P. Myllymki, H. Tirri, P. Misikangas, and J. Sievnen, "A Probabilistic Approach to WLAN User Location Estimation," Int'l J. Wireless Information Networks, vol. 9, pp. 155-164, 2002.
[25] R. Battiti, M. Brunato, and A. Villani, "Statistical Learning Theory for Location Fingerprinting in Wireless LANs," Technical Report DIT-02-0086, Universita di Trento, Dipartimento di Informatica e Telecomunicazioni, Oct. 2002.
[26] B.-C. Liu, K.-H. Lin, and J.-C. Wu, "Analysis of Hyperbolic and Circular Positioning Algorithms Using Stationary Signal-Strength-Difference Measurements in Wireless Communication," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 499-509, Mar. 2006.
[27] J. Hightower and G. Borriella, "Location Systems for Ubiquitous Computing," Computer, vol. 34, no. 8, pp. 57-66, 2001.
[28] K. Pahlavan, X. Li, and J. Maleka, "Indoor Geolocation Science and Technology," IEEE Comm. Magazine, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 112-118, Feb. 2002.
[29] C.-T. Huang, C.-H. Wu, Y.-N. Lee, and J.-T. Chen, "A Novel Indoor RSS-Based Position Location Algorithm Using Factor Graphs," IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 3050-3058, June 2009.
[30] Ekahau, http:/www.ekahau.com, 2012.
[31] M.B. Kjærgaard, "Automatic Mitigation of Sensor Variations for Signal Strength Based Location Systems," Proc. Second Int'l Workshop Location and Context Awareness, 2006.
[32] M.B. Kjærgaard, "Indoor Location Fingerprinting with Heterogeneous Clients," Pervasive and Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 31-43, Feb. 2011.
[33] "Tcpdump/Libpcap Public Repository," http:/www.tcpdump. org, 2012.
[34] BlueZ, "Official Linux Bluetooth Protocol Stack," http:/www.bluez.org, 2012.
[35] K. Kaemarungsi and P. Krishnamurthy, "Properties of Indoor Received Signal Strength for WLAN Location Fingerprinting," Proc. First Ann. Int'l Conf. Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services (MobiQuitous '04), pp. 14-23, 2004.
[36] A. Madhavapeddy and A. Tse, "A Study of Bluetooth Propagation Using Accurate Indoor Location Mapping," Proc. Seventh Int'l Conf. Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp '05), pp. 105-122, Sept. 2005.
6 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool