The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.09 - Sept. (2012 vol.11)
pp: 1514-1531
Erman Ayday , Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta
Faramarz Fekri , Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta
Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTNs) have been identified as one of the key areas in the field of wireless communication, wherein sparseness and delay are particularly high. They are emerging as a promising technology in vehicular, planetary/interplanetary, military/tactical, disaster response, underwater and satellite networks. DTNs are characterized by large end-to-end communication latency and the lack of end-to-end path from a source to its destination. These characteristics pose several challenges to the security of DTNs. Especially, Byzantine attacks in which one or more legitimate nodes have been compromised and fully controlled by the adversary can give serious damages to the network in terms of latency and data availability. Using reputation-based trust management systems is shown to be an effective way to handle the adversarial behavior in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). However, because of the unique characteristics of DTNs, those traditional techniques do not apply to DTNs. Our main objective in this paper is to develop a robust trust mechanism and an efficient and low cost malicious node detection technique for DTNs. Inspired by our recent results on reputation management for online systems and e-commerce, we develop an iterative malicious node detection mechanism for DTNs referred as ITRM. The proposed scheme is a graph-based iterative algorithm motivated by the prior success of message passing techniques for decoding low-density parity-check codes over bipartite graphs. Applying ITRM to DTNs for various mobility models, we observed that the proposed iterative reputation management scheme is far more effective than well-known reputation management techniques such as the Bayesian framework and EigenTrust. Further, we concluded that the proposed scheme provides high data availability and packet-delivery ratio with low latency in DTNs under various adversary attacks which attempt to both undermine the trust and detection scheme and the packet delivery protocol.
Peer to peer computing, Mobile computing, Ad hoc networks, Iterative decoding, Security, Iterative methods, Network security, Fault tolerance, delay-tolerant networks., Security, trust and reputation management, iterative algorithms, malicious node detection
Erman Ayday, Faramarz Fekri, "An Iterative Algorithm for Trust Management and Adversary Detection for Delay-Tolerant Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.11, no. 9, pp. 1514-1531, Sept. 2012, doi:10.1109/TMC.2011.160
[1] K. Fall, "A Delay-Tolerant Network Architecture for Challenged Internets," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 27-34, 2003.
[2] Y. Wang, S. Jain, M. Martonosi, and K. Fall, "Erasure-Coding Based Routing for Opportunistic Networks," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Workshop Delay-Tolerant Networking (WDTN '05), pp. 229-236, 2005.
[3] Y. Zhu, D. Guo, and M.L. Honig, "A Message-Passing Approach for Joint Channel Estimation, Interference Mitigation and Decoding," IEEE Trans. Wireless Comm., vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 6008-6018, Dec. 2009.
[4] H. Pishro-Nik and F. Fekri, "Results on Punctured Low-Density Parity-Check Codes and Improved Iterative Decoding Techniques," IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 599-614, Feb. 2007.
[5] E. Ayday, H. Lee, and F. Fekri, "An Iterative Algorithm for Trust and Reputation Management," Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Information Theory (ISIT '09), 2009.
[6] A.A. Pirzada, C. McDonald, and A. Datta, "Performance Comparison of Trust-Based Reactive Routing Protocols," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 695-710, June 2006.
[7] S. Marti, T. Giuli, K. Lai, and M. Baker, "Mitigating Routing Misbehavior in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 255-265, 2000.
[8] K. Paul and D. Westhoff, "Context Aware Detection of Selfish Nodes in DSR Based Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE GlobeCom, pp. 178-182, 2002.
[9] S. Buchegger and J. Boudec, "Performance Analysis of CONFIDANT Protocol (Coorperation of Nodes: Fairness in Dynamic Ad-Hoc Networks)," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, June 2002.
[10] S. Buchegger and J. Boudec, "A Robust Reputation System for P2P and Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. Second Workshop the Economics of Peer-to-Peer Systems, 2004.
[11] E. Ayday and F. Fekri, "Using Node Accountability in Credential Based Routing for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. Fifth IEEE Int'l Conf. Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Systems, 2008.
[12] E. Ayday and F. Fekri, "A Protocol for Data Availability in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks in the Presence of Insider Attacks," Elsevier Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 181-192, Mar. 2010.
[13] P. Dewan, P. Dasgupta, and A. Bhattacharya, "On Using Reputations in Ad-Hoc Networks to Counter Malicious Nodes," Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS '04), 2004.
[14] K. Liu, J. Deng, P.K. Varshney, and K. Balakrishnan, "An Acknowledgment-Based Approach for the Detection of Routing Misbehavior in MANETs," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 536-550, May 2007.
[15] W. Yu and K.R. Liu, "Game Theoretic Analysis of Cooperation Stimulation and Security in Autonomous Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 507-521, May 2007.
[16] P. Resnick, R. Zeckhauser, E. Friedman, and K. Kuwabara, "Reputation Systems: Facilitating Trust in Internet Interactions," Comm. ACM, vol. 43, no. 12, pp. 45-48, 2000.
[17] A. Jøsang, R. Ismail, and C. Boyd, "A Survey of Trust and Reputation Systems for Online Service Provision," Decision Support Systems, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 618-644, 2007.
[18] K. Aberer and Z. Despotovic, "Managing Trust in a Peer-2-Peer Information System," Proc. 10th Int'l Conf. Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM '01), pp. 310-317, 2001.
[19] F. Cornelli, E. Damiani, S.D.C. di Vimercati, S. Paraboschi, and P. Samarati, "Choosing Reputable Servents in a P2P Network," Proc. 11th Int'l Conf. World Wide Web (WWW '02), pp. 376-386, 2002.
[20] E. Damiani, D.C. di Vimercati, S. Paraboschi, P. Samarati, and F. Violante, "A Reputation-Based Approach for Choosing Reliable Resources in Peer-to-Peer Networks," Proc. Ninth ACM Conf. Computer and Comm. Security (CCS '02), pp. 207-216, 2002.
[21] S.D. Kamvar, M.T. Schlosser, and H. Garcia-Molina, "The Eigentrust Algorithm for Reputation Management in P2P Networks," Proc. 12th Int'l Conf. World Wide Web (WWW '03), pp. 640-651, 2003.
[22] C. Dellarocas, "Immunizing Online Reputation Reporting Systems against Unfair Ratings and Discriminatory Behavior," Proc. Second ACM Conf. Electronic Commerce (EC '00), pp. 150-157, 2000.
[23] P. Macnaughton-Smith, W.T. Williams, M.B. Dale, and L.G. Mockett, "Dissimilarity Analysis: A New Technique of Hierarchical Sub-Division," Nature, vol. 202, pp. 1034-1035, 1964.
[24] A. Seth and S. Keshav, "Practical Security for Disconnected Nodes," Proc. First IEEE ICNP Workshop Secure Network Protocols (NPSec), pp. 31-36, 2005.
[25] S. Cui, P. Duan, and C. Chan, "An Efficient Identity-Based Signature Scheme with Batch Verifications," Proc. First Int'l Conf. Scalable Information Systems (InfoScale '06), p. 22, 2006.
[26] A. Kate, G. Zaverucha, and U. Hengartner, "Anonymity and Security in Delay Tolerant Networks," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Security and Privacy in Comm. Networks (SecureComm '07), 2007.
[27] J. Burgess, G. Bissias, M. Corner, and B. Levine, "Surviving Attacks on Disruption-Tolerant Networks without Authentication," Proc. Eighth ACM Int'l Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, pp. 61-70, 2007.
[28] Y. Yang, Q. Feng, Y.L. Sun, and Y. Dai, "RepTrap: A Novel Attack on Feedback-Based Reputation Systems," Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Security and Privacy in Comm. Networks (SecureComm '08), pp. 1-11, 2008.
[29] B.N. Vellambi and F. Fekri, "Results on the Improved Decoding Algorithm for Low-Density Parity-Check Codes over the Binary Erasure Channel," IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1510-1520, Apr. 2007.
[30] G. Zacharia, A. Moukas, and P. Maes, "Collaborative Reputation Mechanisms in Electronic Marketplaces," Proc. 32nd Ann. Hawaii Int'l Conf. System Sciences (HICSS '99), vol. 8, 1999.
[31] I. Rhee, M. Shin, S. Hong, K. Lee, and S. Chong, "On the Levy Walk Nature of Human Mobility," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2008.
[32] J. Broch, D.A. Maltz, D.B. Johnson, Y.-C. Hu, and J. Jetcheva, "A Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad Hoc Network Routing Protocols," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 85-97, 1998.
[33] A. Petz, J. Enderle, and C. Julien, "A Framework for Evaluating DTN Mobility Models," Proc. Second Int'l Conf. Simulation Tools and Techniques, pp. 94:1-94:8, 2009.
[34] S. Hong, I. Rhee, S.J. Kim, K. Lee, and S. Chong, "Routing Performance Analysis of Human-Driven Delay Tolerant Networks Using the Truncated Levy Walk Model," Proc. First ACM SIGMOBILE Workshop Mobility Models, pp. 25-32, 2008.
[35] M. Luby, "LT Codes," Proc. 43rd Symp. Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS '02), pp. 271-280, 2002.
[36] A. Shokrollahi, "Raptor Codes," IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 2551-2567, June 2006.
[37] B.N. Vellambi, R. Subramanian, F. Fekri, and M. Ammar, "Reliable and Efficient Message Delivery in Delay Tolerant Networks Using Rateless Codes," Proc. First Int'l MobiSys Workshop Mobile Opportunistic Networking (MobiOpp '07), pp. 91-98, 2007.
[38] B.H. Bloom, "Space/Time Trade-Offs in Hash Coding with Allowable Errors," ACM Comm., vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 422-426, July 1970.
[39] F. Hao, M. Kodialam, and T.V. Lakshman, "Building High Accuracy Bloom Filters Using Partitioned Hashing," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems, pp. 277-288, 2007.
[40] R. Groenevelt, P. Nain, and G. Koole, "The Message Delay in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Performance Evaluation, vol. 62, nos. 1-4, pp. 210-228, 2005.
[41] A. Whitby, A. Josang, and J. Indulska, "Filtering Out Unfair Ratings in Bayesian Reputation Systems," Proc. Seventh Int'l Workshop Trust in Agent Societies (AAMAS '04), 2004.
[42] C. Zhang, R. Lu, X. Lin, P.-H. Ho, and X. Shen, "An Efficient Identity Based Batch Verification Scheme for Vehicular Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2008.
19 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool