The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.09 - Sept. (2012 vol.11)
pp: 1426-1440
Jie Yang , Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken
Simon Sidhom , Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken
Gayathri Chandrasekaran , Rutgers University, North Brunswick
Tam Vu , Rutgers University, North Brunswick
Hongbo Liu , Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken
Nicolae Cecan , Rutgers University, North Brunswick
Yingying Chen , Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken
Marco Gruteser , Rutgers University, North Brunswick
Richard P. Martin , Rutgers University, Piscataway
ABSTRACT
This work addresses the fundamental problem of distinguishing between a driver and passenger using a mobile phone, which is the critical input to enable numerous safety and interface enhancements. Our detection system leverages the existing car stereo infrastructure, in particular, the speakers and Bluetooth network. Our acoustic approach has the phone send a series of customized high frequency beeps via the car stereo. The beeps are spaced in time across the left, right, and if available, front and rear speakers. After sampling the beeps, we use a sequential change-point detection scheme to time their arrival, and then use a differential approach to estimate the phone's distance from the car's center. From these differences a passenger or driver classification can be made. To validate our approach, we experimented with two kinds of phones and in two different cars. We found that our customized beeps were imperceptible to most users, yet still playable and recordable in both cars. Our customized beeps were also robust to background sounds such as music and wind, and we found the signal processing did not require excessive computational resources. In spite of the cars' heavy multipath environment, our approach had a classification accuracy of over 90 percent, and around 95 percent with some calibrations. We also found, we have a low false positive rate, on the order of a few percent.
INDEX TERMS
Smart phones, Distance measurement, Microphones, Acoustics, Bluetooth, Cellular phones, Noise measurement, Vehicle safety, location classification., Driving safety, driver phone use, smartphone, car speakers, bluetooth, acoustic ranging
CITATION
Jie Yang, Simon Sidhom, Gayathri Chandrasekaran, Tam Vu, Hongbo Liu, Nicolae Cecan, Yingying Chen, Marco Gruteser, Richard P. Martin, "Sensing Driver Phone Use with Acoustic Ranging through Car Speakers", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.11, no. 9, pp. 1426-1440, Sept. 2012, doi:10.1109/TMC.2012.92
REFERENCES
[1] http://tinyurl.coman5yl, 2012.
[2] http://www.bang-olufsen.comsound-system-audi-r8 , 2012.
[3] Drivesmart Plus, http://tinyurl.com4v7oygy, 2012.
[4] Governors Highway Safety Assoc., http://tinyurl.com39hfe7, 2012.
[5] Guardian Angel Vehicle Platform, http:/www.trinitynoble.com, 2012.
[6] Key2SafeDriving App, http:/www.key2safedriving.com, 2012.
[7] Nat'l Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Fatality Analysis Reporting System, http://tinyurl.com24h2t7, 2012.
[8] The New York Times, http://tinyurl.com4etjlja, 2012.
[9] Reuters, http://tinyurl.com4uoxefh, 2012.
[10] Textecution, http:/www.textecution.com, 2012.
[11] txtblocker, http:/www.txtblocker.com, 2012.
[12] A. Swerdlow, B. Kühn, T. Machmer, and K. Kroschel, "Speaker Position Estimation in Vehicles by Means of Acoustic Analysis," Proc. 34th Deutsche Jahrestagung für Akustik (DAGA '07), 2007.
[13] M. Basseville and I. Nikiforov, Detection of Abrupt Changes: Theory and Application, vol. 10. Prentice Hall, 1993.
[14] L. Bergasa, J. Nuevo, M. Sotelo, R. Barea, and M. Lopez, "Real-Time System for Monitoring Driver Vigilance," IEEE Trans. Intelligent Transportation Systems, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 63-77, Mar. 2006.
[15] G. Borriello, A. Liu, T. Offer, C. Palistrant, and R. Sharp, "Walrus: Wireless Acoustic Location with Room-Level Resolution Using Ultrasound," Proc. ACM MobiSys, pp. 191-203, 2005.
[16] J. Caird, C. Willness, P. Steel, and C. Scialfa, "A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Cell Phones on Driver Performance," Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 1282-1293, 2008.
[17] G. Cerrato, "Automotive Sound Quality-Powertrain, Road and Wind Noise," Sound and Vibration, vol. 43, pp. 16-24, 2009.
[18] G. Chandrasekaran, T. Vu, A. Varshavsky, M. Gruteser, R.P. Martin, J. Yang, and Y. Chen, "Tracking Vehicular Speed Variations by Warping Mobile Phone Signal Strengths," Proc. Int'l Conf. Pervasive Computing and Comm. (PerCom '11), 2011.
[19] J. Eriksson, L. Girod, B. Hull, R. Newton, S. Madden, and H. Balakrishnan, "The Pothole Patrol: Using a Mobile Sensor Network for Road Surface Monitoring," Proc. Sixth Int'l Conf. Mobile Systems, Applications, and Services, pp. 29-39, 2008.
[20] H. Fastl and E. Zwicker, Psychoacoustics: Facts and Models. Springer-Verlag, 2007.
[21] S. Gelfand and H. Levitt, Hearing: An Introduction to Psychological and Physiological Acoustics, vol. 2, Marcel Dekker, 2004.
[22] L. Girod, M. Lukac, V. Trifa, and D. Estrin, "The Design and Implementation of a Self-Calibrating Distributed Acoustic Sensing Platform," Proc. Fourth Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (Sensys '06), pp. 71-84, 2006.
[23] D. Gundlegard and J. Karlsson, "Handover Location Accuracy for Travel Time Estimation in Gsm and Umts," Proc. IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conf. (ITSC '09), Mar. 2009.
[24] A. Harter, A. Hopper, P. Steggles, A. Ward, and P. Webster, "The Anatomy of a Context-Aware Application," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 59-68, 1999.
[25] J. Hu, C. Cheng, and W. Liu, "A Robust Statistical-Based Speaker's Location Detection Algorithm in a Vehicular Environment," EURASIP J. Applied Signal Processing, vol. 2007, no. 1, p. 181, 2007.
[26] M. Kutila, M. Jokela, G. Markkula, and M. Rue, "Driver Distraction Detection with a Camera Vision System," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Image Processing (ICIP '07), 2007.
[27] K.A. Li, P. Baudisch, and K. Hinckley, "Blindsight: Eyes-Free Access to Mobile Phones," Proc. 26th Ann. SIGCHI Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '08), pp. 1389-1398, 2008.
[28] J. Lindqvist and J. Hong, "Undistracted Driving: A Mobile Phone That Doesn't Distract," Proc. 12th Workshop Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (HotMobile '11), 2011.
[29] P. Mohan, V. Padmanabhan, and R. Ramjee, "Trafficsense: Rich Monitoring of Road and Traffic Conditions Using Mobile Smartphones," Proc. Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys '08), pp. 323-336, 2008.
[30] G. Moustakides, "Optimal Procedures for Detecting Changes in Distributions," Annals of Statistics, vol. 14, pp. 1379-1387, 1986.
[31] L. Nelson, S. Bly, and T. Sokoler, "Quiet Calls: Talking Silently on Mobile Phones," Proc. SIGCHI Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '01), pp. 174-181, 2001.
[32] U.D. of Transport, "Faces of Distracted Driving," http://www. distraction.govfaces, 2012.
[33] E. Page, "Continuous Inspection Schemes," Biometrika, vol. 41, nos. 1/2, pp. 100-115, 1954.
[34] C. Peng, G. Shen, Y. Zhang, Y. Li, and K. Tan, "BeepBeep: A High Accuracy Acoustic Ranging System Using COTS Mobile Devices," Proc. Fifth Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (Sensys '07), pp. 1-14, 2007.
[35] N. Priyantha, A. Chakraborty, and H. Balakrishnan, "The Cricket Location-Support System," Proc. ACM MobiCom, pp. 32-43, Aug. 2000.
[36] J. Rodriguez-Ascariz, L. Boquete, J. Cantos, and S. Ortega, "Automatic System for Detecting Driver Use of Mobile Phones," Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, vol. 19, pp. 673-681, 2010.
[37] J. Sallai, G. Balogh, M. Maróti, Á. Lédeczi, and B. Kusy, "Acoustic Ranging in Resource-Constrained Sensor Networks," Proc. Int'l Conf. Wireless Network (ICWN '04), 2004.
[38] D.D. Salvucci, "Predicting the Effects of In-Car Interfaces on Driver Behavior Using a Cognitive Architecture," Proc. SIGCHI Conf. Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '01), pp. 120-127, 2001.
[39] C. Schreiner, "Driver Distraction: Relevant Research and Implications for Public Policy," http://tinyurl.com35gw7k6, 2012.
[40] I. Titze and D. Martin, "Principles of Voice Production," Acoustical Soc. of Am. J., vol. 104, p. 1148, 1998.
[41] P. Treffner and R. Barrett, "Hands-Free Mobile Phone Speech while Driving Degrades Coordination and Control," Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, vol. 7, nos. 4/5, pp. 229-246, 2004.
[42] US Dept. Transportation - Nat'l Highway Traffic Safety Administration, "Distracted Driving 2009," Traffic Safety Facts Research Note, pp. 1-9, Sept. 2009.
[43] M. Wiberg and S. Whittaker, "Managing Availability: Supporting Lightweight Negotiations to Handle Interruptions," ACM Trans. Computer-Human Interaction, vol. 12, pp. 356-387, 2005.
[44] J. Yang, S. Sidhom, G. Chandrasekaran, T. Vu, H. Liu, N. Cecan, Y. Chen, M. Gruteser, and R. Martin, "Detecting Driver Phone Use Leveraging Car Speakers," Proc. 17th Ann. Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 97-108, 2011.
7 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool