The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.08 - Aug. (2012 vol.11)
pp: 1358-1371
Yu-Chee Tseng , National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu
ABSTRACT
Due to hardware design or cost consideration, sensors may possess sector-like sensing coverage. Furthermore, by stepper motors, sensors can rotate to cover the objects around them. This type of sensors are called rotatable and directional (R&D) sensors. Through rotation, R&D sensors provide temporal coverage to objects by "periodically” detecting their existence. In the paper, we first develop an event-driven surveillance system by R&D sensors, where objects are monitored by the sensors equipped with infrared detectors and cameras. When an object is taken away, the sensor monitoring the object reports a warning message along with detailed snapshots from the surroundings. Then, motivated by the system, we formulate an R&D sensor deployment problem, which tries to deploy the minimum number of R&D sensors to cover a given set of objects such that each object is covered by 0 < \delta \le 1 ratio of time in every frame. We show this problem to be NP-hard and propose two efficient heuristics. The maximum covering deployment (MCD) heuristic iteratively deploys a sensor to cover more objects, and performs well when objects congregate together. The disk-overlapping deployment (DOD) heuristic deploys sensors to cover the joint sectors of overlapped disks, so it works better when objects are arbitrarily placed in the sensing field. The paper contributes in defining a new temporal coverage model by R&D sensors, developing a surveillance application for this model, and proposing efficient heuristics to reduce the deployment cost.
INDEX TERMS
Wireless sensor networks, Surveillance, Sensor systems, Cameras, Prototypes, wireless sensor network., Directional sensor, surveillance system, temporal coverage
CITATION
Yu-Chee Tseng, "Using Rotatable and Directional (R&D) Sensors to Achieve Temporal Coverage of Objects and Its Surveillance Application", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.11, no. 8, pp. 1358-1371, Aug. 2012, doi:10.1109/TMC.2011.161
REFERENCES
[1] T. Arampatzis, J. Lygeros, and S. Manesis, "A Survey of Applications of Wireless Sensors and Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Mediterranean Conf. Control and Automation Intelligent Control, pp. 719-724, 2005.
[2] M. Younis and K. Akkaya, "Strategies and Techniques for Node Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey," Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 621-655, 2008.
[3] S. Aoki, J. Nakazawa, and H. Tokuda, "Spinning Sensors: A Middleware for Robotic Sensor Nodes with Spatiotemporal Models," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, pp. 89-98, 2008.
[4] R. Horaud, D. Knossow, and M. Michaelis, "Camera Cooperation for Achieving Visual Attention," Machine Vision and Applications, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 1-12, 2006.
[5] P. Kulkarni, D. Ganesan, P. Shenoy, and Q. Lu, "SensEye: A Multi-Tier Camera Sensor Network," Proc. 13th Ann. ACM Int'l Conf. Multimedia, pp. 229-238, 2005.
[6] J.Y. Lee, "Exploiting Constrained Rotation for Localization of Directional Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Wireless Comm. and Mobile Computing Conf., pp. 767-772, 2008.
[7] F. Nussbaum, G.T. Stevens, and J.G. Kelly, "Sensors for a Forward-Looking High Resolution AUV Sonar," Proc. IEEE Symp. Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Technology, pp. 141-145, 1996.
[8] I.T. Ruiz, S. de Raucourt, Y. Petillot, and D.M. Lane, "Concurrent Mapping and Localization Using Sidescan Sonar," IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 442-456, 2004.
[9] J.F. Michaels, "An Approach to Radiated Testing of Installed Airborne Doppler Radar with Weather/Windshear Detection Capability," IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 25-30, Dec. 1995.
[10] M. Daun, W. Koch, and R. Klemm, "Tracking of Ground Targets with Bistatic Airborne Radar," Proc. IEEE Radar Conf., 2008.
[11] G.K. Das, R. Fraser, A. Lopez-Ortiz, and B.G. Nickerson, "On the Discrete Unit Disk Cover Problem," Proc. Fifth Int'l Conf. WALCOM: Algorithms and Computation, pp. 146-157, 2011.
[12] C.F. Huang and Y.C. Tseng, "The Coverage Problem in a Wireless Sensor Network," Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 519-528, 2005.
[13] G. Simon, M. Molnar, L. Gonczy, and B. Cousin, "Robust K-Coverage Algorithms for Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 57, no. 8, pp. 1741-1748, Aug. 2008.
[14] L. Liu, H. Ma, and X. Zhang, "On Directional K-Coverage Analysis of Randomly Deployed Camera Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm., pp. 2707-2711, 2008.
[15] S. Kumar, T.H. Lai, and A. Arora, "Barrier Coverage with Wireless Sensors," Wireless Networks, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 817-834, 2007.
[16] L. Zhang, J. Tang, and W. Zhang, "Strong Barrier Coverage with Directional Sensors," Proc. IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf., 2009.
[17] S. Megerian, F. Koushanfar, G. Qu, G. Veltri, and M. Potkonjak, "Exposure in Wireless Sensor Networks: Theory and Practical Solutions," Wireless Networks, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 443-454, 2002.
[18] G. Veltri, Q. Huang, G. Qu, and M. Potkonjak, "Minimal and Maximal Exposure Path Algorithms for Wireless Embedded Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, pp. 40-50, 2003.
[19] L. Liu, X. Zhang, and H. Ma, "Minimal Exposure Path Algorithms for Directional Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Global Telecomm. Conf., 2009.
[20] C. Gui and P. Mohapatra, "Power Conservation and Quality of Surveillance in Target Tracking Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM Int'l Conf. Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 129-143, 2004.
[21] L. Liu, X. Zhang, and H. Ma, "Exposure-Path Prevention in Directional Sensor Networks Using Sector Model Based Percolation," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Comm., 2009.
[22] C. Gui and P. Mohapatra, "Virtual Patrol: A New Power Conservation Design for Surveillance Using Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Symp. Information Processing in Sensor Networks, pp. 246-253, 2005.
[23] B. Liu, P. Brass, O. Dousse, P. Nain, and D. Towsley, "Mobility Improves Coverage of Sensor Networks," Proc. ACM Int'l Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, pp. 300-308, 2005.
[24] C.Y. Chang, H.R. Chang, H.J. Liu, and S.W. Chang, "On Providing Temporal Full-Coverage by Applying Energy-Efficient Hole-Movement Strategies for Mobile WSNs," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf., pp. 2778-2783, 2007.
[25] C. Liu and G. Cao, "Spatial-Temporal Coverage Optimization in Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 465-478, Apr. 2011.
[26] K. Chakrabarty, S.S. Iyengar, H. Qi, and E. Cho, "Grid Coverage for Surveillance and Target Location in Distributed Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 1448-1453, Dec. 2002.
[27] S.S. Dhillon and K. Chakrabarty, "Sensor Placement for Effective Coverage and Surveillance in Distributed Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf., pp. 1609-1614, 2003.
[28] F.Y.S. Lin and P.L. Chiu, "A Near-Optimal Sensor Placement Algorithm to Achieve Complete Coverage/Discrimination in Sensor Networks," IEEE Comm. Letters, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 43-45, Jan. 2005.
[29] Y.C. Wang, C.C. Hu, and Y.C. Tseng, "Efficient Deployment Algorithms for Ensuring Coverage and Connectivity of Wireless Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Wireless Internet Conf., pp. 114-121, 2005.
[30] X. Bai, S. Kumar, D. Xuan, Z. Yun, and T.H. Lai, "Deploying Wireless Sensors to Achieve Both Coverage and Connectivity," Proc. ACM Int'l Symp. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing, pp. 131-142, 2006.
[31] T. Sun, L.J. Chen, C.C. Han, and M. Gerla, "Reliable Sensor Networks for Planet Exploration," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Networking, Sensing and Control, pp. 816-821, 2005.
[32] Z. Cheng, M. Perillo, and W.B. Heinzelman, "General Network Lifetime and Cost Models for Evaluating Sensor Network Deployment Strategies," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 484-497, Apr. 2008.
[33] Z. Butler and D. Rus, "Event-Based Motion Control for Mobile-Sensor Networks," IEEE Pervasive Computing, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 34-42, Oct.-Dec. 2003.
[34] Y. Zou and K. Chakrabarty, "Sensor Deployment and Target Localization Based on Virtual Forces," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 1293-1303, 2003.
[35] G. Tan, S.A. Jarvis, and A.M. Kermarrec, "Connectivity-Guaranteed and Obstacle-Adaptive Deployment Schemes for Mobile Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 836-848, June 2009.
[36] X. Wang and S. Wang, "Hierarchical Deployment Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 10, on. 7, pp. 1028-1041, July 2011.
[37] G. Wang, G. Cao, T.L. Porta, and W. Zhang, "Sensor Relocation in Mobile Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, pp. 2302-2312, 2005.
[38] G. Wang, G. Cao, and T.L. Porta, "Movement-Assisted Sensor Deployment," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 640-652, June 2006.
[39] Y.C. Wang, C.C. Hu, and Y.C. Tseng, "Efficient Placement and Dispatch of Sensors in a Wireless Sensor Network," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 262-274, Feb. 2008.
[40] Y.C. Wang and Y.C. Tseng, "Distributed Deployment Schemes for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks to Ensure Multilevel Coverage," IEEE Trans. Parallel and Distributed Systems, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 1280-1294, Sept. 2008.
[41] J. Ai and A.A. Abouzeid, "Coverage by Directional Sensors in Randomly Deployed Wireless Sensor Networks," J. Combinatorial Optimization, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 21-41, 2006.
[42] Y. Cai, W. Lou, M. Li, and X.Y. Li, "Energy Efficient Target-Oriented Scheduling in Directional Sensor Networks," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 58, no. 9, pp. 1259-1274, Sept. 2009.
[43] H. Ma and Y. Liu, "Some Problems of Directional Sensor Networks," Int'l J. Sensor Networks, vol. 2, nos. 1/2, pp. 44-52, 2007.
[44] X. Han, X. Cao, E.L. Lloyd, and C.C. Shen, "Deploying Directional Sensor Networks with Guaranteed Connectivity and Coverage," Proc. IEEE Conf. Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks, pp. 153-160, 2008.
[45] Y.E. Osais, M. St-Hilaire, and F.R. Yu, "Directional Sensor Placement with Optimal Sensing Range, Field of View and Orientation," Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 15, pp. 216-225, 2010.
[46] J. Djugash, S. Singh, G. Kantor, and W. Zhang, "Range-Only SLAM for Robots Operating Cooperatively with Sensor Networks," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Robotics and Automation, pp. 2078-2084, 2006.
[47] Y.C. Tseng, Y.C. Wang, K.Y. Cheng, and Y.Y. Hsieh, "iMouse: An Integrated Mobile Surveillance and Wireless Sensor System," Computer, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 60-66, 2007.
[48] Jennic Microcontroller, http:/www.jennic.com, 2012.
[49] Zigbee Alliance, "Zigbee Specification: Zigbee Document," 2006.
[50] B. Xiao, Q. Zhuge, Y. He, Z. Shao, and E.H.M. Sha, "Algorithms for Disk Covering Problems with the Most Points," Proc. IASTED Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems, pp. 541-546, 2003.
[51] X. Cao, X. Jia, and G. Chen, "Maximizing Lifetime of Sensor Surveillance Systems with Directional Sensors," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Mobile Ad-Hoc and Sensor Networks, pp. 110-115, 2010.
33 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool