The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Issue No.08 - Aug. (2012 vol.11)
pp: 1287-1303
Ze Li , Clemson University, Clemson
In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), tasks are conducted based on the cooperation of nodes in the networks. However, since the nodes are usually constrained by limited computation resources, selfish nodes may refuse to be cooperative. Reputation systems and price-based systems are two main solutions to the node noncooperation problem. A reputation system evaluates node behaviors by reputation values and uses a reputation threshold to distinguish trustworthy nodes and untrustworthy nodes. A price-based system uses virtual cash to control the transactions of a packet forwarding service. Although these two kinds of systems have been widely used, very little research has been devoted to investigating the effectiveness of the node cooperation incentives provided by the systems. In this paper, we use game theory to analyze the cooperation incentives provided by these two systems and by a system with no cooperation incentive strategy. We find that the strategies of using a threshold to determine the trustworthiness of a node in the reputation system and of rewarding cooperative nodes in the price-based system may be manipulated by clever or wealthy but selfish nodes. Illumined by the investigation results, we propose and study an integrated system. Theoretical and simulation results show the superiority of the integrated system over an individual reputation system and a price-based system in terms of the effectiveness of cooperation incentives and selfish node detection.
Mobile ad hoc networks, Game theory, Ad hoc networks, Peer to peer computing, Routing protocols, Mathematical model, game theory., MANET, distributed network, reputation system, price-based system
Ze Li, "Game-Theoretic Analysis of Cooperation Incentive Strategies in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.11, no. 8, pp. 1287-1303, Aug. 2012, doi:10.1109/TMC.2011.151
[1] A. Duran and C. Shen, "Mobile Ad Hoc P2P File Sharing," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC), 2004.
[2] S. Goel, T. Imielinski, and K. Ozbay, "Ascertaining Viability of WiFi Based Vehicle-to-Vehicle Network for Traffic Information Dissemination," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), 2004.
[3] H. Wu, R. Fujimoto, R. Guensler, and M. Hunter, "MDDV: Mobility-Centric Data Dissemination Algorithm for Vehicular Networks," Proc. ACM Int'l Workshop Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET), 2004.
[4] H. Gharavi, "Multichannel Mobile Ad Hoc Links for Multimedia Communications," Proc. IEEE, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 77-96, Jan. 2008.
[5] S. Marti, T.J. Giuli, K. Lai, and M. Baker, "Mitigating Routing Misbehavior in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2000.
[6] J.J. Jaramillo and R. Srikant, "DARWIN: Distributed and Adaptive Reputation Mechanism for Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2007.
[7] K. Balakrishnan, J. Deng, and V.K. Varshney, "TWOACK: Preventing Selfishness in Mobile Ad Hoc Netwotks," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC), 2005.
[8] P. Dewan, P. Dasgupta, and A. Bhattacharys, "On Using Reputations in Ad Hoc Networks to Counter Malicious Nodes," Proc. Int'l Conf. Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS), 2004.
[9] S. Bansal and M. Baker, "Observation-Based Cooperation Enforcement in Ad Hoc Networks," Arxiv preprint cs/0307012, 2003.
[10] K. Liu, J. Deng, P.K. Varshney, and K. Balakrishnan, "An Acknowledgment-Based Approach for the Detection of Routing Misbehavior in MANETs," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 536-550, May 2007.
[11] P. Michiardi and R. Molva, "CORE: A Collaborative Reputation Mechanism to Enforce Node Cooperation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. Sixth Joint Working Conf. Comm. and Multimedia Security (CMS), 2002.
[12] S. Buchegger and J.-Y.L. Boudec, "Performance Analysis of the Confidant Protocol," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2003.
[13] S. Marti, T.J. Giuli, K. Lai, and M. Baker, "Mitigating Routing Misbehavior in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2000.
[14] Q. He, D. Wu, and P. Khosla, "SORI: A Secure and Objective Reputation-Based Incentive Scheme for Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE Wireless Comm. and Networking Conf. (WCNC), 2004.
[15] S. Buchegger and J.Y. Leboudec, "The Effect of Rumor Spreading in Reputation Systems for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. Workshop Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc and Wireless Networks (WIOPT), 2003.
[16] B. Zong, F. Xu, J. Jiao, and J. Lv, "A Broker-Assisting Trust and Reputation System Based on Artificial Neural Network," Proc. IEEE Int'l Conf. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC), 2009.
[17] M.T. Refaei, L.A. DaSilva, M. Eltoweissy, and T. Nadeem, "Adaptation of Reputation Management Systems to Dynamic Network Conditions in Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Trans. Computers, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 707-719, May 2010.
[18] S. Buchegger and J.Y. Le Boudec, "A Robust Reputation System for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. Second Workshop Economics of Peer-to-Peer Systems (P2PEcon), 2004.
[19] M. Jakobsson, J. Hubaux, and L. Buttyan, "A Micropayment Scheme Encouraging Collaboration in Multi-Hop Cellular Networks," Proc. Int'l Financial Cryptograph Conf., 2003.
[20] L. Buttyan and J. Hubaux, "Enforcing Service Availability in Mobile Ad-Hoc WANS," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, 2000.
[21] L. Buttyan and J.P. Hubaux, "Stimulating Cooperation in Self-Organizing Mobile Ad Hoc Network," ACM J. MONET, vol. 8, pp. 579-592, 2002.
[22] S. Zhong, J. Chen, and Y.R. Yang, "Sprite: A Simple Cheat-Proof, Credit-Based System for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2003.
[23] J. Crocraft, R. Gibbens, F. Kelly, and S. Ostring, "Modeling Incentives for Collaboration in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Performance Evaluation, vol. 57, pp. 427-439, 2004.
[24] L. Anderegg and S. Eidenbenz, "Ad Hoc-VCG: A Truthful and Cost-Efficient Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Selfish Agents," Proc. ACM MobiCom, 2003.
[25] H. Janzadeh, K. Fayazbakhsh, M. Dehghan, and M.S. Fallah, "A Secure Credit-Based Cooperation Stimulating Mechanism for MANETs Using Hash Chains," Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 25, pp. 926-934, 2009.
[26] P.D. Straffin, Game Theory and Strategy. The Math. Assoc. of Am., 1993.
[27] A. Urpi, M. Bonuccelli, and S. Giordano, "Modeling Cooperation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: A Formal Description of Selfishness," Proc. Workshop Modeling and Optimization in Mobile, Ad Hoc and Wireless Networks (WiOpt), 2003.
[28] E. Altman, A.A. Kherani, P. Michiardi, and R. Molva, "Non-Cooperative Forwarding in Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. Int'l IFIP Networking Conf. (NETWORKING), 2005.
[29] C. Saraydar, N. Mandayam, and D. Goodman, "Efficient Power Control via Pricing in Wireless Data Networks," IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 291-303, Feb. 2002.
[30] Z. Han and K. Liu, "Noncooperative Power-Control Game and Throughput Game over Wireless Networks," IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 1625-1629, Oct. 2005.
[31] V. Srinivasan, "Cooperation in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2003.
[32] M. Felegyhazi, L. Buttyan, and J.P. Hubaux, "Nash Equilibria of Packet Forwarding Strategies in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Trans. Mobile Computing, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 463-476, May 2006.
[33] H. Kameda and E. Altman, "Inefficient Noncooperation in Networking Games of Common-Pool Resources," IEEE J. Selected Area in Comm., vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1260-1268, Sept. 2008.
[34] W. Yu, W. Rhee, S. Boyd, and J. Cioffi, "Iterative Water-Filling for Gaussian Vector Multiple-Access Channels," IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 145-152, Jan. 2004.
[35] Z. Han, Z. Ji, and K. Liu, "Fair Multiuser Channel Allocation for OFDMA Networks Using Nash Bargaining Solutions and Coalitions," IEEE Trans. Comm., vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 1366-1376, Aug. 2005.
[36] L. Cao and H. Zheng, "Distributed Spectrum Allocation via Local Bargaining," Proc. Second Ann. IEEE Comm. Soc. Sensor and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON), 2005.
[37] A. Aram, C. Singh, S. Sarkar, and A. Kumar, "Cooperative Profit Sharing in Coalition Based Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2009.
[38] W. Saad, Z. Han, M. Debbah, A. Hjorungnes, and T. Basar, "Coalitional Games for Distributed Collaborative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2009.
[39] T. Moscibroda and S. Schmid, "On Mechanism Design without Payments for Throughput Maximization," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2009.
[40] J. Cai and U. Pooch, "Allocate Fair Payoff for Cooperation in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Using Shapley Value," Proc. Int'l Parallel and Distributed Processing Symp. (IPDPS), 2004.
[41] V. Srivastava, J. Neel, A.B. Mackenzie, R. Menon, L.A. Dasilva, J.E. Hicks, J.H. Reed, and R.P. Gilles, "Using Game Theory to Analyze Wireless Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Comm. Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 46-56, Fourth Quarter 2005.
[42] E.N. Barron, Game Theory—An Introduction. The Wiley Bicentennial, 2008.
[43] Z. Li and H. Shen, "A Hierarchical Account-Aided Reputation Management System for Large-Scale MANETs," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM, 2011.
[44] L.B. Koralov and Y.G. Sinai, Theory of Probability and Random Processes. Springer, 2007.
[45] H. Shen and Z. Li, "ARM: An Account-Based Hierarchical Reputation Management System for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. Int'l Workshop Wireless Security and Privacy (WISP), 2008.
[46] C.Z. Mooney, Monte Carlo Simulation: Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences. Sage, 1997.
[47] The Network Simulator - ns-2,, 2012.
[48] Z. Li and H. Shen, "Analysis of a Hybrid Reputation Management System for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks," Proc. 18th Int'l Conf. Computer Comm. and Networks (ICCCN), 2009.
78 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool