The Community for Technology Leaders
RSS Icon
Subscribe
Issue No.07 - July (2012 vol.11)
pp: 1163-1178
Anna Abbagnale , University of Rome "Sapienza", Rome
Francesca Cuomo , University of Rome "Sapienza", Rome
ABSTRACT
In this paper, we consider the implications of spectrum heterogeneity on connectivity and routing in a Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Network (CRAHN). We study the Laplacian spectrum of the CRAHN graph when the activity of primary users is considered. We introduce the cognitive algebraic connectivity, i.e., the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian of a graph, in a cognitive scenario. Throughout this notion we provide a methodology to evaluate the connectivity of CRAHNs and consequently introduce a utility function that is shown to be effective in capturing key characteristics of CRAHN paths. This model provides a unique metric that captures network connectivity, path length, and impact of primary users. Moreover, the proposed metric penalizes paths where spectrum band switchings are highly probable. We design all the components of our routing framework, named Gymkhana, and we present a twofold performance verification: one from a topological perspective to show all the potentialities of the proposed routing approach, and the other considering network traffic to evaluate the performance in terms of end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio.
INDEX TERMS
Cognitive radio, ad hoc routing, graph model.
CITATION
Anna Abbagnale, Francesca Cuomo, "Leveraging the Algebraic Connectivity of a Cognitive Network for Routing Design", IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol.11, no. 7, pp. 1163-1178, July 2012, doi:10.1109/TMC.2011.125
REFERENCES
[1] M. Cesana, F. Cuomo, and E. Ekici, "Routing in Cognitive Radio Networks: Challenges and Solutions," Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 228-248, 2011.
[2] C. Xin, B. Xie, and C.-C. Shen, "A Novel Layered Graph Model for Topology Formation and Routing in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks," Proc. IEEE First Int'l Symp. Symp. New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '05), pp. 308-317, Nov. 2005.
[3] C. Xin, L. Ma, and C.-C. Shen, "A Path-Centric Channel Assignment Framework for Cognitive Radio Wireless Networks," Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 463-476, 2008.
[4] X. Zhou, L. Lin, J. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Cross-Layer Routing Design in Cognitive Radio Networks by Colored Multigraph Model," Wireless Personal Comm., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 123-131, 2009.
[5] Y. Hou, Y. Shi, and H. Sherali, "Spectrum Sharing for Multi-Hop Networking with Cognitive Radios," IEEE J. Selected Areas in Comm., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 146-155, Jan. 2008.
[6] "Unlicensed Operation in the TV Broadcast Bands," technical report, FCC, Nov. 2008.
[7] I. Pefkianakis, S. Wong, and S. Lu, "SAMER: Spectrum Aware Mesh Routing in Cognitive Radio Networks," Proc. IEEE Third Int'l Symp. Symp. New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN '08), pp. 1-5, Oct. 2008.
[8] L. Ding, T. Melodia, S. Batalama, and M.J. Medley, "Cross-Layer Routing and Dynamic Spectrum Allocation in Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 1969-1979, May 2010.
[9] H. Khalife, S. Ahuja, N. Malouch, and M. Krunz, "Probabilistic Path Selection in Opportunistic Cognitive Radio Networks," Proc. IEEE GlobeCom, pp. 1-5, Dec. 2008.
[10] G.-M. Zhu, I. Akyildiz, and G.-S. Kuo, "STOD-RP: A Spectrum-Tree Based On-Demand Routing Protocol for Multi-Hop Cognitive Radio Networks," Proc. IEEE GlobeCom, pp. 1-5, Dec. 2008.
[11] I. Filippini, M. Cesana, and E. Ekici, "Minimum Maintenance Cost Routing in CRNs," Proc. IEEE Sixth Int'l Conf. Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), pp. 284-293, 2009.
[12] W. Ren, Q. Zhao, and A. Swami, "Connectivity of Cognitive Radio Networks: Proximity vs. Opportunity," Proc. ACM Workshop Cognitive Radio Networks (CoRoNet '09), pp. 37-42, 2009.
[13] M. Wellens and P. Mähönen, "Lessons Learned from an Extensive Spectrum Occupancy Measurement Campaign and a Stochastic Duty Cycle Model," Springer Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 15, pp. 461-474, June 2010.
[14] L. Quin and T. Kunz, "On-Demand Routing in Manets: The Impact of a Realistic Physical Layer Model," Proc. Int'l Conf. Ad-Hoc, Mobile, and Wireless Networks, 2003.
[15] T. Yucek and H. Arslan, "A Survey of Spectrum Sensing Algorithms for Cognitive Radio Applications," IEEE Comm. Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 116-130, Quarter 2009.
[16] B.N. Clark, C. Colbourn, and D. Johnson, "Unit Disk Graphs," Discrete Math., vol. 86, pp. 165-177, 1990.
[17] P. Gupta and P.R. Kumar, "The Capacity of Wireless Networks," IEEE Trans. Information Theory, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 388-404, Mar. 2000.
[18] Y. Shi, Y.T. Hou, J. Liu, and S. Kompella, "How to Correctly Use the Protocol Interference Model for Multi-Hop Wireless Networks," Proc. ACM MobiHoc, pp. 239-248, 2009.
[19] B. Mohar, "The Laplacian Spectrum of Graphs," Proc. Graph Theory, Combinatorics, and Applications: Sixth Quadrennial Int'l Conf. the Theory and Applications of Graphs, pp. 871-898, 1991.
[20] A. Jamakovic and S. Uhlig, "On the Relationship Between the Algebraic Connectivity and Graph's Robustness to Node and Link Failures," Proc. Third EuroNGI Conf. Next Generation Internet Networks (NGI '07), pp. 96-102, May 2007.
[21] B. Mohar, "Eigenvalues, Diameter, and Mean Distance in Graphs," Graphs and Combinatorics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 53-64, 1991.
[22] P. Nagaraju, L. Ding, T. Melodia, S. Batalama, D. Pados, and J. Matyjas, "Implementation of a Distributed Joint Routing and Dynamic Spectrum Allocation Algorithm on USRP2 Radios," Proc. IEEE Seventh Ann. Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor Mesh and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON '10), 2010.
[23] H. Khalife, S. Ahuja, N. Malouch, and M. Krunz, "Probabilistic Path Selection in Opportunistic Cognitive Radio Networks," Proc. IEEE GlobeCom, pp. 1-5, 2008.
[24] H.-P. Shiang and M. van der Schaar, "Distributed Resource Management in Multihop Cognitive Radio Networks for Delay-Sensitive Transmission," IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technology, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 941-953, Feb. 2009.
[25] L. Lazos, S. Liu, and M. Krunz, "Spectrum Opportunity-Based Control Channel Assignment in Cognitive Radio Networks," Proc. IEEE Sixth Ann. Comm. Soc. Conf. Sensor, Mesh and Ad Hoc Comm. and Networks (SECON '09), pp. 1-9, 2009.
[26] A. Sampath, L. Yang, L. Cao, H. Zheng, and B.Y. Zhao, "High Throughput Spectrum-Aware Routing for Cognitive Radio Based Ad-Hoc Networks," Proc. Third Int'l Conf. Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Comm. (CrownCom), 2008.
[27] F. Kocak, H. Celebi, S. Gezici, K.A. Qaraqe, H. Arslan, and H.V. Poor, "Time-Delay Estimation in Dispersed Spectrum Cognitive Radio Systems," EURASIP J. Advances in Signal Processing, vol. 2010, p. 10, 2010.
[28] K.C. Carlos Cordeiro and D. Birru, "IEEE 802.22: An Introduction to the First Wireless Standard Based on Cognitive Radios," J. Comm., vol. 1, pp. 38-47, 2006.
27 ms
(Ver 2.0)

Marketing Automation Platform Marketing Automation Tool