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A Fade-Level Skew-Laplace Signal Strength Model for Device-Free Localization with Wireless Networks
June 2012 (vol. 11 no. 6)
pp. 947-958
Joey Wilson, University of Utah, Salt Lake City
Neal Patwari, University of Utah, Salt Lake City
Device-free localization (DFL) is the estimation of the position of a person or object that does not carry any electronic device or tag. Existing model-based methods for DFL from RSS measurements are unable to locate stationary people in heavily obstructed environments. This paper introduces measurement-based statistical models that can be used to estimate the locations of both moving and stationary people using received signal strength (RSS) measurements in wireless networks. A key observation is that the statistics of RSS during human motion are strongly dependent on the RSS "fade level” during no motion. We define fade level and demonstrate, using extensive experimental data, that changes in signal strength measurements due to human motion can be modeled by the skew-Laplace distribution, with parameters dependent on the position of person and the fade level. Using the fade-level skew-Laplace model, we apply a particle filter to experimentally estimate the location of moving and stationary people in very different environments without changing the model parameters. We also show the ability to track more than one person with the model.

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Index Terms:
Device-free localization, wireless networks, RF sensors, tracking, through-wall surveillance.
Joey Wilson, Neal Patwari, "A Fade-Level Skew-Laplace Signal Strength Model for Device-Free Localization with Wireless Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 947-958, June 2012, doi:10.1109/TMC.2011.102
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